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We have assessed the efficacy of the recently developed CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated) system for genome modification in the amphibian Xenopus tropicalis. As a model experiment, targeted mutations of the tyrosinase gene were verified, showing the expected albinism phenotype in injected embryos. We(More)
The General Well-Being Schedule (GWBS) is a widely used, self-administered questionnaire to measure subjective well-being. It contains 18 items and was originally hypothesized to have six domains; however, the following studies suggest other factorial models. We devised the schedule's Japanese edition following the standard procedure and tested its(More)
Smad6 and Smad7 comprise a subclass of vertebrate Smads that antagonize, rather than transduce, TGF-beta family signaling. These Anti-Smads can block BMP signaling, as evidenced by their ability to induce a secondary dorsal axis when misexpressed ventrally in Xenopus embryos. Smad7 inhibits additional TGF-beta related pathways, and causes spina bifida when(More)
Mutations in the Pax6 gene cause ocular defects in both vertebrate and invertebrate animal species, and the disease aniridia in humans. Despite extensive experimentation on this gene in multiple species, including humans, we still do not understand the earliest effects on development mediated by this gene. This prompted us to develop pax6 mutant lines in(More)
The retinal anterior homeobox (rax) gene encodes a transcription factor necessary for vertebrate eye development. rax transcription is initiated at the end of gastrulation in Xenopus, and is a key part of the regulatory network specifying anterior neural plate and retina. We describe here a Xenopus tropicalis rax mutant, the first mutant analyzed in detail(More)
To explore the origins and consequences of tetraploidy in the African clawed frog, we sequenced the Xenopus laevis genome and compared it to the related diploid X. tropicalis genome. We characterize the allotetraploid origin of X. laevis by partitioning its genome into two homoeologous subgenomes, marked by distinct families of 'fossil' transposable(More)
Radiation and tumor infiltration confer a high risk of bleeding on surgical removal of tumor. We report on the case of a 42-year-old woman with a recurrent occult subclavian tumor in her right breast. Computed tomography revealed enhanced tumor adhesion to the subclavian artery at the infraclavicular lymph node. No other metastases were detected. We(More)
The RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in animal cells can be harnessed to silence gene expression with artificial small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or transgenes that express small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs). The transgene-expressing shRNA approach has been adapted into large-scale resources for genome-wide loss-of-function screens, whereas focused studies on a(More)
Pericellular proteolysis by ADAM family metalloproteinases has been widely implicated in cell signaling and development. We recently found that Xenopus ADAM13, an ADAM metalloproteinase, is required for activation of canonical Wnt signaling during cranial neural crest (CNC) induction by regulating a novel crosstalk between Wnt and ephrin B (EfnB) signaling(More)
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