Takuya Miyakawa

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ABA is a major phytohormone that regulates a broad range of plant traits and is especially important for adaptation to environmental conditions. Our understanding of the molecular basis of ABA responses in plants improved dramatically in 2009 and 2010, banner years for ABA research. There are three major components; PYR/PYL/ RCAR (an ABA receptor), type 2C(More)
The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) mediates the adaptation of plants to environmental stresses such as drought and regulates developmental signals such as seed maturation. Within plants, the PYR/PYL/RCAR family of START proteins receives ABA to inhibit the phosphatase activity of the group-A protein phosphatases 2C (PP2Cs), which are major negative(More)
BACKGROUND Aging results in a progressive loss of skeletal muscle, a condition known as sarcopenia. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations accumulate with aging in skeletal muscle and correlate with muscle loss, although no causal relationship has been established. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We investigated the relationship between mtDNA mutations and(More)
Strigolactones (SLs) are phytohormones that inhibit shoot branching and function in the rhizospheric communication with symbiotic fungi and parasitic weeds. An α/β-hydrolase protein, DWARF14 (D14), has been recognized to be an essential component of plant SL signalling, although its precise function remains unknown. Here we present the SL-dependent(More)
The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a crucial role in adaptive responses to environmental stresses, such as drought and high salinity, as well as in plant development, such as seed maturation and dormancy. PYR/PYL/RCAR has been identified as a bona fide ABA receptor (ABAR) that constitutes the core regulatory component of ABA signaling networks in(More)
L-allo-Threonine aldolase (LATA), a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme from Aeromonas jandaei DK-39, stereospecifically catalyzes the reversible interconversion of L-allo-threonine to glycine and acetaldehyde. Here, the crystal structures of LATA and its mutant LATA_H128Y/S292R were determined at 2.59 and 2.50 Å resolution, respectively. Their(More)
A 9-kD proteinase inhibitor was isolated from the seeds of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) and purified to homogeneity. This protein was revealed to partial-noncompetitively inhibit the aspartic acid proteinase pepsin and the cysteine proteinase papain (inhibition constant = 10(-5)-10(-4) m). The cDNA of the inhibitor was revealed to contain a 357-bp open reading(More)
The main flavonoids were isolated from three selected onion cultivars. Three phenolic compounds were obtained by reverse-phase HPLC, and their structures were elucidated by multiple NMR measurements. There were two known compounds, quercetin and quercetin 3'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (Q3'G), and one novel compound, quercetin(More)
A novel basic protein with antifungal activity was isolated from the seeds of Ginkgo biloba and purified to homogeneity. The protein inhibited the growth of some fungi (Fusarium oxysporum, Trichoderma reesei, and Candida albicans) but did not exhibit antibacterial action against Escherichia coli. Furthermore, this protein showed weak inhibitory activity(More)