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BACKGROUND Differences in cytokine/chemokine profiles among patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO), relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), and primary progressive MS (PPMS), and the relationships of these profiles with clinical and neuroimaging features are unclear. A greater understanding of these profiles may help in differential diagnosis. (More)
BACKGROUND Multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) occasionally have an extremely aggressive and debilitating disease course; however, its molecular basis is unknown. This study aimed to determine a relationship between connexin (Cx) pathology and disease aggressiveness in Asian patients with MS and NMO. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Samples(More)
BACKGROUND Abnormal intrathecal synthesis of IgG, reflected by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) oligoclonal IgG bands (OBs) and increased IgG index, is much less frequently observed in Japanese multiple sclerosis (MS) cohorts compared with Western cohorts. We aimed to clarify whether genetic and common infectious backgrounds influence CSF IgG abnormality in(More)
Opticospinal multiple sclerosis (OSMS) in Asians has similar features to the relapsing-remitting form of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) seen in Westerners. OSMS is suggested to be NMO based on the frequent detection of specific IgG targeting aquaporin-4 (AQP4), designated NMO-IgG. The present study sought to clarify the significance of anti-AQP4 autoimmunity in(More)
Induced gamma activity has a key role in the temporal binding of distributed cortico-cortical processing. To elucidate the neural synchronization in the early-stage somatosensory processing, we studied the functional connectivity between the primary and secondary somatosensory cortices (SI and SII) in healthy subjects using magnetoencephalography (MEG) with(More)
We studied the effects of fasudil, a selective Rho-kinase inhibitor, on experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN). Continuous parenteral administration of fasudil prevented the development of EAN induced by P0 peptide 180-199 in Lewis rats while it also reduced EAN severity when administered after disease onset. Immunohistochemical examination disclosed a(More)
BACKGROUND We reported the emergence of a distinct myelitis in patients with atopic diathesis (atopic myelitis [AM]) by a nationwide survey throughout Japan. Similar cases have recently been reported in Caucasians. Pathologic studies of biopsied spinal cord specimens revealed chronic active inflammation with eosinophilic infiltration. OBJECTIVE To clarify(More)
OBJECTIVES We aimed to identify the target antigens for combined central and peripheral demyelination (CCPD). METHODS We screened target antigens by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting using peripheral nerve tissues to identify target antigens recognized by serum antibodies from selected CCPD and chronic inflammatory demyelinating(More)
OBJECTIVE To clarify whether genetic and common infectious backgrounds are distinct, according to anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) antibody status in Japanese patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO). METHODS We analysed human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1 and HLA-DPB1 alleles, and IgG antibodies against Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, varicella zoster(More)
OBJECTIVE Using neuroimaging, we analyzed the nature of extensive brain lesions in five anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody-positive patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. RESULTS Extensive brain lesions involved white matter in three, and basal ganglia and corpus callosum in one each. Four patients showed high diffusivity on apparent(More)