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Opticospinal multiple sclerosis (OSMS) in Asians has similar features to the relapsing-remitting form of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) seen in Westerners. OSMS is suggested to be NMO based on the frequent detection of specific IgG targeting aquaporin-4 (AQP4), designated NMO-IgG. The present study sought to clarify the significance of anti-AQP4 autoimmunity in(More)
There are two distinct subtypes of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Asians: optic-spinal (OSMS) and conventional (CMS). Longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesions (LESCLs) extending over three or more vertebral segments are characteristic of patients with OSMS, yet in Asians, one-fourth of CMS patients also have LESCLs. To clarify the distinction between LESCLs(More)
BACKGROUND Differences in cytokine/chemokine profiles among patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO), relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), and primary progressive MS (PPMS), and the relationships of these profiles with clinical and neuroimaging features are unclear. A greater understanding of these profiles may help in differential diagnosis. (More)
BACKGROUND Multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) occasionally have an extremely aggressive and debilitating disease course; however, its molecular basis is unknown. This study aimed to determine a relationship between connexin (Cx) pathology and disease aggressiveness in Asian patients with MS and NMO. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Samples(More)
OBJECTIVES To clarify the prevalence, frequent causes and distinct features of hypertrophic pachymeningitis (HP) according to background conditions in a nationwide survey in Japan. METHODS The study began with a preliminary survey to determine the approximate number of HP patients diagnosed from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2009, and was followed by a(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to clarify clinical, immunological, and neuroimaging features in anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody-positive and antibody-negative Sjögren's syndrome (SS) patients with central nervous system (CNS) involvement. METHODS Medical records and MRI scans were retrospectively analyzed in 22 consecutive SS(More)
BACKGROUND Abnormal intrathecal synthesis of IgG, reflected by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) oligoclonal IgG bands (OBs) and increased IgG index, is much less frequently observed in Japanese multiple sclerosis (MS) cohorts compared with Western cohorts. We aimed to clarify whether genetic and common infectious backgrounds influence CSF IgG abnormality in(More)
This report describes, for the first time, an occurrence of wall-eyed bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia (WEBINO) in a 19-year-old female with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorder, who had anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody. A high signal intensity lesion on T2-weighted MRI was detected in the midbrain tegmentum adjacent to the aqueduct, and(More)
We studied the effects of fasudil, a selective Rho-kinase inhibitor, on experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN). Continuous parenteral administration of fasudil prevented the development of EAN induced by P0 peptide 180-199 in Lewis rats while it also reduced EAN severity when administered after disease onset. Immunohistochemical examination disclosed a(More)
OBJECTIVE To clarify whether genetic and common infectious backgrounds are distinct, according to anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) antibody status in Japanese patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO). METHODS We analysed human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1 and HLA-DPB1 alleles, and IgG antibodies against Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, varicella zoster(More)