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Opticospinal multiple sclerosis (OSMS) in Asians has similar features to the relapsing-remitting form of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) seen in Westerners. OSMS is suggested to be NMO based on the frequent detection of specific IgG targeting aquaporin-4 (AQP4), designated NMO-IgG. The present study sought to clarify the significance of anti-AQP4 autoimmunity in(More)
There are two distinct subtypes of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Asians: optic-spinal (OSMS) and conventional (CMS). Longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesions (LESCLs) extending over three or more vertebral segments are characteristic of patients with OSMS, yet in Asians, one-fourth of CMS patients also have LESCLs. To clarify the distinction between LESCLs(More)
OBJECTIVES To clarify the prevalence, frequent causes and distinct features of hypertrophic pachymeningitis (HP) according to background conditions in a nationwide survey in Japan. METHODS The study began with a preliminary survey to determine the approximate number of HP patients diagnosed from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2009, and was followed by a(More)
Induced gamma activity has a key role in the temporal binding of distributed cortico-cortical processing. To elucidate the neural synchronization in the early-stage somatosensory processing, we studied the functional connectivity between the primary and secondary somatosensory cortices (SI and SII) in healthy subjects using magnetoencephalography (MEG) with(More)
BACKGROUND Multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) occasionally have an extremely aggressive and debilitating disease course; however, its molecular basis is unknown. This study aimed to determine a relationship between connexin (Cx) pathology and disease aggressiveness in Asian patients with MS and NMO. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Samples(More)
BACKGROUND Differences in cytokine/chemokine profiles among patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO), relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), and primary progressive MS (PPMS), and the relationships of these profiles with clinical and neuroimaging features are unclear. A greater understanding of these profiles may help in differential diagnosis. (More)
BACKGROUND Fingolimod efficiently reduces multiple sclerosis (MS) relapse by inhibiting lymphocyte egress from lymph nodes through down-modulation of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptors. We aimed to clarify the alterations in peripheral blood T cell subsets associated with MS relapse on fingolimod. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Blood samples successively(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to clarify clinical, immunological, and neuroimaging features in anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody-positive and antibody-negative Sjögren's syndrome (SS) patients with central nervous system (CNS) involvement. METHODS Medical records and MRI scans were retrospectively analyzed in 22 consecutive SS(More)
BACKGROUND Abnormal intrathecal synthesis of IgG, reflected by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) oligoclonal IgG bands (OBs) and increased IgG index, is much less frequently observed in Japanese multiple sclerosis (MS) cohorts compared with Western cohorts. We aimed to clarify whether genetic and common infectious backgrounds influence CSF IgG abnormality in(More)
This report describes, for the first time, an occurrence of wall-eyed bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia (WEBINO) in a 19-year-old female with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorder, who had anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody. A high signal intensity lesion on T2-weighted MRI was detected in the midbrain tegmentum adjacent to the aqueduct, and(More)