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It has recently been shown that noise can improve the detection of stimuli in several sensory modalities. We herein investigated whether visual contrast detection sensitivity can be improved by adding a certain amount of noise. The contrast detection thresholds of a light changing brightness periodically were measured either with or without overlapping(More)
Many fungi growing on plant biomass produce proteins currently classified as glycoside hydrolase family 61 (GH61), some of which are known to act synergistically with cellulases. In this study we show that PcGH61D, the gene product of an open reading frame in the genome of Phanerochaete chrysosporium, is an enzyme that cleaves cellulose using a(More)
BACKGROUND Near-infrared spectroscopy has helped our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders and has advantages including noninvasiveness, lower cost, and ease of use compared with other imaging techniques, like functional magnetic resonance imaging. The verbal fluency task is the most common and well established task used(More)
The present study aimed to demonstrate stochastic resonance (SR) for a visual signal above the threshold by using a two-alternative forced-choice protocol. The percent correct response enhanced at non-zero intensity of noise, while decreased with more intense noise. SR for the suprathreshold signals was found for signals with relatively low intensity above(More)
It has recently been shown that noise can facilitate signal detection in the sensory systems. We have previously shown that contrast detection sensitivity in the visual perception is improved in the presence of noise by measuring the detection threshold (Sasaki et al. Effect of noise on the contrast detection threshold in visual perception, Neurosci. Lett.(More)
Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a redox cofactor utilized by a number of prokaryotic dehydrogenases. Not all prokaryotic organisms are capable of synthesizing PQQ, even though it plays important roles in the growth and development of many organisms, including humans. The existence of PQQ-dependent enzymes in eukaryotes has been suggested based on homology(More)
Collectively classified as white-rot fungi, certain basidiomycetes efficiently degrade the major structural polymers of wood cell walls. A small subset of these Agaricomycetes, exemplified by Phlebiopsis gigantea, is capable of colonizing freshly exposed conifer sapwood despite its high content of extractives, which retards the establishment of other fungal(More)
Analysis of heterogeneous catalysis at an interface is difficult because of the variety of reaction sites and the difficulty of observing the reaction. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by cellulases is a typical heterogeneous reaction at a solid/liquid interface, and a key parameter of such reactions on polymeric substrates is the processivity, i.e., the(More)
Neutron protein crystallography (NPC) is a powerful tool for determining the hydrogen position and water orientation in proteins, but a much larger protein crystal is needed for NPC than for X-ray crystallography, and thus crystal preparation is a bottleneck. To obtain large protein crystals, it is necessary to know the properties of the target protein in(More)
Fungi secrete a set of glycoside hydrolases and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) to degrade plant polysaccharides. Brown-rot fungi, such as Gloeophyllum trabeum, tend to have few LPMOs, and information on these enzymes is scarce. The genome of G. trabeum encodes four auxiliary activity 9 (AA9) LPMOs (GtLPMO9s), whose coding sequences were(More)