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The basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium produces xyloglucanase Xgh74B, which has the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 74 catalytic domain and family 1 carbohydrate-binding module, in cellulose-grown culture. The recombinant enzyme, which was heterologously expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris, had high hydrolytic activity toward xyloglucan from(More)
Many fungi growing on plant biomass produce proteins currently classified as glycoside hydrolase family 61 (GH61), some of which are known to act synergistically with cellulases. In this study we show that PcGH61D, the gene product of an open reading frame in the genome of Phanerochaete chrysosporium, is an enzyme that cleaves cellulose using a(More)
Termites and their symbiotic protists have established a prominent dual lignocellulolytic system, which can be applied to the biorefinery process. One of the major components of lignocellulose from conifers is glucomannan, which comprises a heterogeneous combination of β-1,4-linked mannose and glucose. Mannanases are known to hydrolyze the internal linkage(More)
It has recently been shown that noise can improve the detection of stimuli in several sensory modalities. We herein investigated whether visual contrast detection sensitivity can be improved by adding a certain amount of noise. The contrast detection thresholds of a light changing brightness periodically were measured either with or without overlapping(More)
Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are a recently discovered class of enzymes that employ a copper-mediated, oxidative mechanism to cleave glycosidic bonds. The LPMO catalytic mechanism likely requires that molecular oxygen first binds to Cu(I), but the oxidation state in many reported LPMO structures is ambiguous, and the changes in the LPMO(More)
Carbohydrate structures are modified and degraded in the biosphere by a myriad of mostly hydrolytic enzymes. Recently, lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases (LPMOs) were discovered as a new class of enzymes for cleavage of recalcitrant polysaccharides that instead employ an oxidative mechanism. LPMOs employ copper as the catalytic metal and are dependent on(More)
Methylumbelliferyl-β-cellobioside (MUF-G2) is a convenient fluorogenic substrate for certain β-glycoside hydrolases (GH). However, hydrolysis of the aglycone is poor with GH family 6 enzymes (GH6), despite strong binding. Prediction of the orientation of the aglycone of MUF-G2 in the +1 subsite of Hypocrea jecorina Cel6A by automated docking suggested(More)
This study evaluated the plasma concentrations of oxycodone and its demethylates and opioid-induced adverse effects based on cachexia stage in cancer patients receiving oxycodone. Seventy patients receiving oxycodone for cancer pain were enrolled. Cachexia was evaluated using the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS). Predose plasma concentrations of oxycodone,(More)
This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the concentrations of plasma fentanyl and serum 4β-hydroxycholesterol based on CYP3A5 genotype and gender in cancer patients. Thirty-three Japanese cancer patients treated with transdermal fentanyl were enrolled. The concentrations of plasma fentanyl and norfentanyl, and serum 4β-hydroxycholesterol and(More)
Collectively classified as white-rot fungi, certain basidiomycetes efficiently degrade the major structural polymers of wood cell walls. A small subset of these Agaricomycetes, exemplified by Phlebiopsis gigantea, is capable of colonizing freshly exposed conifer sapwood despite its high content of extractives, which retards the establishment of other fungal(More)