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Both the appearance of cytoplasmic inclusions containing phosphorylated TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) and inefficient RNA editing at the GluR2 Q/R site are molecular abnormalities observed specifically in motor neurons of patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The purpose of this study is to determine whether a link exists between(More)
Both mislocalization of TDP-43 and downregulation of RNA-editing enzyme ADAR2 co-localize in the motor neurons of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients, but how they are linked is not clear. Here we demonstrate that activation of calpain, a Ca2+-dependent cysteine protease, by upregulation of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors generates carboxy-terminal-cleaved(More)
GluR2 is a subunit of the AMPA receptor, and the adenosine for the Q/R site of its pre-mRNA is converted to inosine (A-to-I conversion) by the enzyme called adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2). Failure of A-to-I conversion at this site affects multiple AMPA receptor properties, including the Ca(2+) permeability of the receptor-coupled ion channel,(More)
alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptor-mediated excitotoxicity has been proposed to play a role in death of motor neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We demonstrated that RNA editing of GluR2 mRNA at the glutamine/arginine (Q/R) site was decreased in autopsy-obtained spinal motor neurons, but not in cerebellar(More)
A-to-I RNA editing modifies a variety of biologically important mRNAs, and is specifically catalyzed by either adenosine deaminase acting on RNA type 1 (ADAR1) or type 2 (ADAR2) in mammals including human. Recently several novel A-to-I editing sites were identified in mRNAs abundantly expressed in mammalian organs by means of computational genomic analysis,(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common adult-onset fatal motor neuron disease. In spinal motor neurons of patients with sporadic ALS, normal RNA editing of GluA2, a subunit of the L-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor, is inefficient. Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2) specifically mediates RNA(More)
Deficient RNA editing of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR2 at the Q/R site is a primary cause of neuronal death and recently has been reported to be a tightly linked etiological cause of motor neuron death in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We quantified the RNA editing efficiency of the GluR2 Q/R site in single motor neurons of rats transgenic(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common adult-onset motor neuron disease. More than 90% of ALS cases are sporadic, and the majority of sporadic ALS patients do not carry mutations in genes causative of familial ALS; therefore, investigation specifically targeting sporadic ALS is needed to discover the pathogenesis. The motor neurons of(More)
TDP-43 pathology in spinal motor neurons is a neuropathological hallmark of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and has recently been shown to be closely associated with the downregulation of an RNA editing enzyme called adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2) in the motor neurons of sporadic ALS patients. Because TDP-43 pathology is found more(More)
TDP-43 pathology in motor neurons is a hallmark of ALS. In addition, the reduced expression of an RNA editing enzyme, adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2), increases the expression of GluA2 with an unedited Q/R site in the motor neurons of patients with sporadic ALS. As the occurrence of these two disease-specific abnormalities in the same motor(More)