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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common adult-onset fatal motor neuron disease. In spinal motor neurons of patients with sporadic ALS, normal RNA editing of GluA2, a subunit of the L-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor, is inefficient. Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2) specifically mediates RNA(More)
Both the appearance of cytoplasmic inclusions containing phosphorylated TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) and inefficient RNA editing at the GluR2 Q/R site are molecular abnormalities observed specifically in motor neurons of patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The purpose of this study is to determine whether a link exists between(More)
GluR2 is a subunit of the AMPA receptor, and the adenosine for the Q/R site of its pre-mRNA is converted to inosine (A-to-I conversion) by the enzyme called adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2). Failure of A-to-I conversion at this site affects multiple AMPA receptor properties, including the Ca(2+) permeability of the receptor-coupled ion channel,(More)
alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptor-mediated excitotoxicity has been proposed to play a role in death of motor neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We demonstrated that RNA editing of GluR2 mRNA at the glutamine/arginine (Q/R) site was decreased in autopsy-obtained spinal motor neurons, but not in cerebellar(More)
Deficient RNA editing of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR2 at the Q/R site is a primary cause of neuronal death and recently has been reported to be a tightly linked etiological cause of motor neuron death in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We quantified the RNA editing efficiency of the GluR2 Q/R site in single motor neurons of rats transgenic(More)
The motor neurons of patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) express abundant Q/R site-unedited GluR2 mRNA, whereas those of patients with other motor neuron diseases including familial ALS associated with mutated SOD1 (ALS1) and those of normal subjects express only Q/R site-edited GluR2 mRNA. Because adenosine deaminase acting on RNA(More)
Both mislocalization of TDP-43 and downregulation of RNA-editing enzyme ADAR2 co-localize in the motor neurons of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients, but how they are linked is not clear. Here we demonstrate that activation of calpain, a Ca2+-dependent cysteine protease, by upregulation of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors generates carboxy-terminal-cleaved(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common adult-onset motor neuron disease. More than 90% of ALS cases are sporadic, and the majority of sporadic ALS patients do not carry mutations in genes causative of familial ALS; therefore, investigation specifically targeting sporadic ALS is needed to discover the pathogenesis. The motor neurons of(More)
TDP-43 pathology in motor neurons is a hallmark of ALS. In addition, the reduced expression of an RNA editing enzyme, adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2), increases the expression of GluA2 with an unedited Q/R site in the motor neurons of patients with sporadic ALS. As the occurrence of these two disease-specific abnormalities in the same motor(More)
A-to-I RNA editing modifies a variety of biologically important mRNAs, and is specifically catalyzed by either adenosine deaminase acting on RNA type 1 (ADAR1) or type 2 (ADAR2) in mammals including human. Recently several novel A-to-I editing sites were identified in mRNAs abundantly expressed in mammalian organs by means of computational genomic analysis,(More)