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The evolution of plastids from cyanobacteria is believed to represent a singularity in the history of life. The enigmatic amoeba Paulinella and its 'recently' acquired photosynthetic inclusions provide a fascinating system through which to gain fresh insight into how endosymbionts become organelles. The plastids, or chloroplasts, of algae and plants evolved(More)
Cryptophyte and chlorarachniophyte algae are transitional forms in the widespread secondary endosymbiotic acquisition of photosynthesis by engulfment of eukaryotic algae. Unlike most secondary plastid-bearing algae, miniaturized versions of the endosymbiont nuclei (nucleomorphs) persist in cryptophytes and chlorarachniophytes. To determine why, and to(More)
molecular sequences of the FK01 and M0880/a strains exhibit differences, it is clear that these strains and their chromatophores have common origins (Yoon et al., unpublished data). Among the EST sequences from FK01, we found a sequence that was very similar to psaE, the gene encoding cyanobacterial photosystem I reaction center subunit IV. This gene was(More)
BACKGROUND Gaining the ability to photosynthesize was a key event in eukaryotic evolution because algae and plants form the base of the food chain on our planet. The eukaryotic machines of photosynthesis are plastids (e.g., chloroplast in plants) that evolved from cyanobacteria through primary endosymbiosis. Our knowledge of plastid evolution, however,(More)
Glycolysis is a central metabolic pathway in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. In eukaryotes, the textbook view is that glycolysis occurs in the cytosol. However, fusion proteins comprised of two glycolytic enzymes, triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), were found in members of the stramenopiles (diatoms and(More)
Most euglyphids, a group of testate amoebae, have a shell that is constructed from numerous siliceous scales. The euglyphid Paulinella chromatophora has photosynthetic organelles (termed cyanelles or chromatophores), allowing it to be cultivated more easily than other euglyphids. Like other euglyphids, P. chromatophora has a siliceous shell made of(More)
We developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis technique by using silver staining to detect the G-->A point mutation of intron 14 of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene, which is a common mutation in CETP deficiency. After conventional PCR, amplified DNA was heated and subjected to(More)
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