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Cryptophyte and chlorarachniophyte algae are transitional forms in the widespread secondary endosymbiotic acquisition of photosynthesis by engulfment of eukaryotic algae. Unlike most secondary plastid-bearing algae, miniaturized versions of the endosymbiont nuclei (nucleomorphs) persist in cryptophytes and chlorarachniophytes. To determine why, and to(More)
molecular sequences of the FK01 and M0880/a strains exhibit differences, it is clear that these strains and their chromatophores have common origins (Yoon et al., unpublished data). Among the EST sequences from FK01, we found a sequence that was very similar to psaE, the gene encoding cyanobacterial photosystem I reaction center subunit IV. This gene was(More)
The prasinophytes comprise a morphologically heterogeneous assembly of mostly marine flagellates and coccoid taxa, which represent an important component of the nano- and picoplankton, and have previously figured prominently in discussions about the origin and phylogeny of the green plants. To evaluate their putative basal position in the Viridiplantae and(More)
The evolution of plastids from cyanobacteria is believed to represent a singularity in the history of life. The enigmatic amoeba Paulinella and its 'recently' acquired photosynthetic inclusions provide a fascinating system through which to gain fresh insight into how endosymbionts become organelles. The plastids, or chloroplasts, of algae and plants evolved(More)
Functionally and morphologically degenerate mitochondria, so-called mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs), are frequently found in eukaryotes inhabiting hypoxic or anoxic environments. In the last decade, MROs have been discovered from a phylogenetically broad range of eukaryotic lineages and these organelles have been revealed to possess diverse(More)
The cyanobacterium-derived plastids of algae and plants have supported the diversification of much of extant eukaryotic life. Inferences about early events in plastid evolution must rely on reconstructing events that occurred over a billion years ago. In contrast, the photosynthetic amoeba Paulinella chromatophora provides an exceptional model to study(More)
BACKGROUND Gaining the ability to photosynthesize was a key event in eukaryotic evolution because algae and plants form the base of the food chain on our planet. The eukaryotic machines of photosynthesis are plastids (e.g., chloroplast in plants) that evolved from cyanobacteria through primary endosymbiosis. Our knowledge of plastid evolution, however,(More)
A new heterotrophic flagellate Wobblia lunata gen. et sp. nov. is described. This organism usually attaches to the substratum showing a wobbling motion, and sometimes glides on the substratum or swims freely in the medium. W. lunata has various features characteristic of the stramenopiles. These include a hairy flagellum with tripartite tubular hairs, a(More)
Elongation factor 1α (EF-1α) and elongation factor-like protein (EFL) are considered to be functionally equivalent proteins involved in peptide synthesis. Eukaryotes can be fundamentally divided into 'EF-1α-containing' and 'EFL-containing' types. Recently, EF-1α and EFL genes have been surveyed across the diversity of eukaryotes to explore the origin and(More)
Members of the diatom family rhopalodiaceae possess cyanobacteria-derived intracellular structures called spheroid bodies (SBs) that very likely carry out nitrogen fixation. Due to the shortage of molecular data from SBs and rhopalodiacean diatoms, it remains unclear how SBs were established and spread in rhopalodiacean diatoms. We here amplified the small(More)