Takuro Nakayama

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The cyanobacterium-derived plastids of algae and plants have supported the diversification of much of extant eukaryotic life. Inferences about early events in plastid evolution must rely on reconstructing events that occurred over a billion years ago. In contrast, the photosynthetic amoeba Paulinella chromatophora provides an exceptional model to study(More)
Cryptophyte and chlorarachniophyte algae are transitional forms in the widespread secondary endosymbiotic acquisition of photosynthesis by engulfment of eukaryotic algae. Unlike most secondary plastid-bearing algae, miniaturized versions of the endosymbiont nuclei (nucleomorphs) persist in cryptophytes and chlorarachniophytes. To determine why, and to(More)
The birth of plastids brought photosynthesis to eukaryotes and had a huge impact on their evolution. Despite its importance, details of the plastid acquisition process through primary endosymbiosis are not well understood. Recently, a cercozoan testate amoeba, Paulinella chromatophora, has received considerable attention because it may be able to provide(More)
The evolution of plastids from cyanobacteria is believed to represent a singularity in the history of life. The enigmatic amoeba Paulinella and its 'recently' acquired photosynthetic inclusions provide a fascinating system through which to gain fresh insight into how endosymbionts become organelles. The plastids, or chloroplasts, of algae and plants evolved(More)
The evolution of mitochondria and plastids from bacterial endosymbionts were key events in the origin and diversification of eukaryotic cells. Although the ancient nature of these organelles makes it difficult to understand the earliest events that led to their establishment, the study of eukaryotic cells with recently evolved obligate endosymbiotic(More)
Functionally and morphologically degenerate mitochondria, so-called mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs), are frequently found in eukaryotes inhabiting hypoxic or anoxic environments. In the last decade, MROs have been discovered from a phylogenetically broad range of eukaryotic lineages and these organelles have been revealed to possess diverse(More)
Gaining the ability to photosynthesize was a key event in eukaryotic evolution because algae and plants form the base of the food chain on our planet. The eukaryotic machines of photosynthesis are plastids (e.g., chloroplast in plants) that evolved from cyanobacteria through primary endosymbiosis. Our knowledge of plastid evolution, however, remains limited(More)
Although cigarette smoking is a recognized cause of acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP), and an increase in eosinophils in the lung is a common occurrence in AEP, early-phase neutrophilia in AEP is not well understood. We describe three cases of cigarette smoke (menthol type)-induced AEP with neutrophilia in the lungs or blood. Increased in-vitro production(More)
Glycolysis is a central metabolic pathway in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. In eukaryotes, the textbook view is that glycolysis occurs in the cytosol. However, fusion proteins comprised of two glycolytic enzymes, triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), were found in members of the stramenopiles (diatoms and(More)
Elongation factor 1α (EF-1α) and elongation factor-like protein (EFL) are considered to be functionally equivalent proteins involved in peptide synthesis. Eukaryotes can be fundamentally divided into 'EF-1α-containing' and 'EFL-containing' types. Recently, EF-1α and EFL genes have been surveyed across the diversity of eukaryotes to explore the origin and(More)