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Macrophages (Mϕ) are well documented to produce IL-1β through various signaling pathways in response to small particles such as silica, asbestos and urea crystals, in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). However, it has not been clear to what extent particle size affects the response. To investigate this point, we stimulated bone marrow-derived(More)
Interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-2 is a transcription factor involved in type I (IFN- α/β) signaling. It has been reported that IRF-2 deficiency results in various immune dysfunctions. However, the role of IRF-2 in B-cell functions needs to be elucidated. Unlike wild-type (WT) B cells, IRF-2(-/-) B2 cells were refractory to anti-IgM, but not LPS. Such a(More)
Amyloid β (Aβ) peptide, a causative agent of Alzheimer's disease, forms two types of aggregates: oligomers and fibrils. These aggregates induce inflammatory responses, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production by microglia, which are macrophage-like cells located in the brain. In this study, we examined the effect of the two forms of Aβ aggregates on IL-1β(More)
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