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The embryonic gut of vertebrates consists of endodermal epithelium, surrounding mesenchyme derived from splanchnic mesoderm and enteric neuronal components derived from neural crest cells. During gut organogenesis, the mesenchyme differentiates into distinct concentric layers around the endodermal epithelium forming the lamina propria, muscularis mucosae,(More)
Transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) is negatively regulated by the human factors DRB-sensitivity inducing factor (DSIF) and negative elongation factor (NELF). A 66-kilodalton subunit of NELF (NELF-A) shows limited sequence similarity to hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg), the viral protein required for replication of hepatitis delta virus(More)
BACKGROUND Although many case-control studies have replicated an association between dysfunctional parenting and a lifetime diagnosis of depression, few epidemiological studies have explored the association. In addition, little is known about the association in non-western countries. METHODS Using logistic regression analyses, additive and interactive(More)
Sonic hedgehog (Shh) gene encodes a secreted protein that acts as an important mediator of cell-cell interactions. A detailed analysis of Shh expression in the digestive organs of the chicken embryo was carried out. Shh expression in the endoderm begins at stage 7, when the formation of the foregut commences, and is found as narrow bands in the midgut. Shh(More)
Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions are necessary for the normal development of various digestive organs. In chicken proventriculus (glandular stomach), morphogenesis and differentiation of the epithelium depend upon the inductive signals coming from underlying mesenchyme. However, the nature of such signals is still unclear despite extensive analyses(More)
The medaka is becoming an attractive model organism for the study of vertebrate early development and organogenesis and large-scale mutagenesis projects that are aimed at creating developmentally defective mutants are now being conducted by several groups in Japan. To strengthen the study of medaka developmental genetics, we have conducted a large-scale(More)
The adhesion of circulating cancer cells to vascular endothelium is an important step in the hematogenous metastasis of cancer. Until recently, it has been believed that carbohydrate antigens are expressed on cancer cells, and E-selectin is expressed on endothelial cells to effect this adhesion. We investigated the gene expression of fucosyl-transferase(More)
OBJECTIVE Increased urinary excretions of several plasma proteins with different molecular radii <55 A and different isoelectric points (pI), such as IgG, ceruloplasmin, transferrin, and orosomucoid, have been independently reported to precede the development of microalbuminuria in diabetic patients. We examined whether increases in urinary excretions of(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the degree of urinary copper excretion and stages of diabetic nephropathy. METHODS Copper, ceruloplasmin and albumin concentrations were measured in serum and urine samples from 41 type 2 diabetic outpatients with different stages of nephropathy and from 10 healthy controls. The(More)
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor is a new class of anti-diabetic drug which exerts its glucose-lowering action by suppressing the degradation of a gut incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). To elucidate whether treatment with stronger DPP-4 inhibitor on top of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) provides greater renal protective(More)