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To visualize Ca(2+)-dependent protein-protein interactions in living cells by fluorescence readouts, we used a circularly permuted green fluorescent protein (cpGFP), in which the amino and carboxyl portions had been interchanged and reconnected by a short spacer between the original termini. The cpGFP was fused to calmodulin and its target peptide, M13. The(More)
The complete nucleotide sequence of the chloroplast genome (150,613 bp) from the unicellular green alga Chlorella vulgaris C-27 has been determined. The genome contains no large inverted repeat and has one copy of rRNA gene cluster consisting of 16S, 23S, and 5S rRNA genes. It contains 31 tRNA genes, of which the tRNALeu(GAG) gene has not been found in land(More)
Xenopus Zic3 is a Xenopus homologue of mouse Zic and Drosophila pair-rule gene, odd-paired. We show here that Zic3 has significant roles both in neural and neural crest development in Xenopus embryo. Expression of Zic3 is first detected in prospective neural plate region at gastrulation. Onset of the expression was earlier than most proneural genes and(More)
G proteins of the Ras family function as molecular switches in many signalling cascades; however, little is known about where they become activated in living cells. Here we use FRET (fluorescent resonance energy transfer)-based sensors to report on the spatio-temporal images of growth-factor-induced activation of Ras and Rap1. Epidermal growth factor(More)
Tall (inner) hair cells were isolated from specific locations in the chick cochlea. The electrical membrane properties of these cells were recorded using the tight-seal whole-cell technique. Depolarizing current steps elicited damped voltage oscillations that ranged in frequency from 100 to 250 Hz among cells from the middle third of the cochlea (basal(More)
A two-year double-blind study monitored and evaluated the effects of 1 alpha-hydroxy vitamin D3 (1 alpha(OH)D3) on the lumbar (L2-4BMD) and total body bone mineral densities (TBBMD) and occurrence of fracture in 113 female osteoporotic patients receiving 0.75 micrograms/day of 1 alpha(OH)D3 (n = 57) or a placebo (n = 56) with calcium supplementation in both(More)
The Ca2+-sensitive photoprotein aequorin and the new green fluorescent protein-based fluorescent Ca2+ indicators 'ratiometric-pericam' were selectively expressed in the mitochondria, cytosol and/or nucleus of spontaneously beating ventricular myocytes from neonatal rats. This combined strategy reveals that mitochondrial [Ca2+] oscillates rapidly and in(More)
We have previously demonstrated that pallidotegmental GABAergic neurons play a crucial role in prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex in mice through the activation of GABA(B) receptors in pedunculopontine tegmental neurons. In this study, we investigated whether PPI disruption induced by methamphetamine (METH) or MK-801 is associated with the(More)
The mouse Zic gene, which encodes a zinc finger protein, is expressed in the developing or matured central nervous system in a highly restricted manner. We identified two novel Zic-related genes (Zic2, Zic3) through genomic and cDNA cloning. Both genes are highly similar to Zic(1), especially in their zinc finger motif. A comparison of genomic organization(More)
All giant neurons of the medial basal forebrain stained for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). Cell numbers declined from 400,000 to 475,000 in young controls to approximately 140,000 in elderly controls. Five senile dementia cases had counts ranging from 45,000 to 100,000 cells. ChAT levels in control frontal cortex decreased from 1.2 mumol/hr/100 mg(More)