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To visualize Ca(2+)-dependent protein-protein interactions in living cells by fluorescence readouts, we used a circularly permuted green fluorescent protein (cpGFP), in which the amino and carboxyl portions had been interchanged and reconnected by a short spacer between the original termini. The cpGFP was fused to calmodulin and its target peptide, M13. The(More)
Xenopus Zic3 is a Xenopus homologue of mouse Zic and Drosophila pair-rule gene, odd-paired. We show here that Zic3 has significant roles both in neural and neural crest development in Xenopus embryo. Expression of Zic3 is first detected in prospective neural plate region at gastrulation. Onset of the expression was earlier than most proneural genes and(More)
G proteins of the Ras family function as molecular switches in many signalling cascades; however, little is known about where they become activated in living cells. Here we use FRET (fluorescent resonance energy transfer)-based sensors to report on the spatio-temporal images of growth-factor-induced activation of Ras and Rap1. Epidermal growth factor(More)
The complete nucleotide sequence of the chloroplast genome (150,613 bp) from the unicellular green alga Chlorella vulgaris C-27 has been determined. The genome contains no large inverted repeat and has one copy of rRNA gene cluster consisting of 16S, 23S, and 5S rRNA genes. It contains 31 tRNA genes, of which the tRNALeu(GAG) gene has not been found in land(More)
A molecular phylogenetic analysis of 25 isolates of fish nodaviruses, the causative agents of viral nervous necrosis of marine fish, was performed based on the nucleotide sequences (427 bases) of the coat protein gene. These fish nodaviruses were classified into four clusters: tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus, striped jack nervous necrosis virus, berfin(More)
Tall (inner) hair cells were isolated from specific locations in the chick cochlea. The electrical membrane properties of these cells were recorded using the tight-seal whole-cell technique. Depolarizing current steps elicited damped voltage oscillations that ranged in frequency from 100 to 250 Hz among cells from the middle third of the cochlea (basal(More)
The Ca2+-sensitive photoprotein aequorin and the new green fluorescent protein-based fluorescent Ca2+ indicators 'ratiometric-pericam' were selectively expressed in the mitochondria, cytosol and/or nucleus of spontaneously beating ventricular myocytes from neonatal rats. This combined strategy reveals that mitochondrial [Ca2+] oscillates rapidly and in(More)
We examined the expression of Zic1, Zic2, and Zic3 genes in the mouse embryo by means of in situ hybridization. Zic genes were found as a group of genes coding for zinc finger proteins that are expressed in a restricted manner in the adult mouse cerebellum. We showed that the genes are the vertebrate homologues of Drosophila odd-paired, which may play an(More)
CD38, a transmembrane glycoprotein with ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity, catalyses the formation of Ca2+ signalling molecules, but its role in the neuroendocrine system is unknown. Here we show that adult CD38 knockout (CD38-/-) female and male mice show marked defects in maternal nurturing and social behaviour, respectively, with higher locomotor activity.(More)
Mutation in human ZIC2, a zinc finger protein homologous to Drosophila odd-paired, causes holoprosencephaly (HPE), which is a common, severe malformation of the brain in humans. However, the pathogenesis is largely unknown. Here we show that reduced expression (knockdown) of mouse Zic2 causes neurulation delay, resulting in HPE and spina bifida.(More)