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Static encephalopathy of childhood with neurodegeneration in adulthood (SENDA) is a recently established subtype of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). By exome sequencing, we found de novo heterozygous mutations in WDR45 at Xp11.23 in two individuals with SENDA, and three additional WDR45 mutations were identified in three other subjects(More)
Membrane fusion is generally controlled by Rabs, soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs), and tethering complexes. Syntaxin 17 (STX17) was recently identified as the autophagosomal SNARE required for autophagosome-lysosome fusion in mammals and Drosophila. In this study, to better understand the mechanism of(More)
Macroautophagy is an intracellular degradation system by which cytoplasmic materials are enclosed by the autophagosome and delivered to the lysosome. Autophagosome formation is considered to take place on the endoplasmic reticulum and involves functions of autophagy-related (Atg) proteins. Here, we report the identification and characterization of mammalian(More)
Autophagosome formation is a dynamic process that is strictly controlled by autophagy-related (Atg) proteins. However, how these Atg proteins are recruited to the autophagosome formation site or autophagic membranes remains poorly understood. Here, we found that FIP200, which is involved in proximal events, directly interacts with Atg16L1, one of the(More)
The cytoplasmic lipid droplet (LD) is one of organelles that has a neutral lipid core with a single phospholipid layer. LDs are believed to be generated between the two leaflets of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and to play various roles, such as high effective energy storage. However, it remains largely unknown how LDs are generated and grow in(More)
25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) is a potent suppressor of cholesterol synthesis gene transcription in cultured cells. A high affinity binding protein for 25-HC, oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP), has been identified from tissue cytosol. OSBP translocates from the cytosol to the Golgi apparatus membranes after addition of 25-HC to cell cultures and is thought(More)
Germinal centers (GCs) are specialized microenvironments in secondary lymphoid organs where high-affinity antibody-producing B cells are selected based on B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) signal strength. BCR signaling required for normal GC selection is uncertain. We have found that protein kinase N1 (PKN1, also known as PRK1) negatively regulates Akt kinase(More)
Intra-Golgi retrograde transport is assumed to maintain Golgi function by recycling Golgi-resident proteins to younger cisternae in the progression of entire Golgi stack from cis to trans. GS28 (Golgi SNARE of 28 kDa, also known as GOS28) is a Golgi-localized SNARE protein and has been implicated in intra-Golgi retrograde transport. However, the in vivo(More)
Oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia (OAT), a condition that includes low sperm number, low sperm motility and abnormal sperm morphology, is the commonest cause of male infertility. Because genetic analysis is frequently impeded by the infertility phenotype, the genetic basis of many of OAT conditions has been hard to verify. Here, we show that deficiency of(More)
Oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) and OSBP-related proteins (ORPs) have been implicated in the distribution of sterols among intracellular organelles. OSBP regulates the Golgi cholesterol level, but how it relates to Golgi function is elusive. Here we report that OSBP is essential for the localization of intra-Golgi soluble vesicle N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive(More)