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Segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM) is an idiopathic noninflammatory vasculopathy involving small to medium arteries, usually in the abdomen, although arteries in the cerebral and coronary circulations also may be affected. Some cases present as abdominal apoplexy due to aneurysmal rupture, but ischemia and infarction also occur. Not uncommonly, SAM may be(More)
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a potentially fatal condition and includes deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. The novel oral anticoagulants, which include the direct thrombin and factor Xa inhibitors, have been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of VTE. Additional interventions include thrombolysis and the use of inferior vena cava(More)
This article reviews the pathophysiology for the development of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in the surgical patient. Patients are stratified into risk groups based on predisposing criteria for the development of thrombosis. Seven modalities of prophylaxis are reviewed with respect to appropriate application. Five major types of surgery are(More)
The new oral anticoagulants may prove to be one of the most significant innovations in clinical practice in the past 60 years. Apixaban and rivaroxaban are specific inhibitors of Factor Xa while dabigatran inhibits Factor IIa. The predictable pharmacological profile of these new agents will allow physicians to use these drugs without the need for routine(More)
BACKGROUND Several novel oral anticoagulants have been studied for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in different patient populations. Clinicians will increasingly encounter scenarios in which they must choose among these and conventional anticoagulants for the treatment of this potentially fatal condition. OBJECTIVE To review(More)
The optimal method of thromboprophylaxis and the value of screening ultrasonography for detection of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in neurosurgery patients remains unclear. The goal of this study was to determine the incidence of DVT in neurosurgical patients who, by hospital protocol, receive surveillance ultrasonography of the lower extremities twice(More)
INTRODUCTION Patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with an acute uncomplicated deep vein thrombosis (DVT) may be eligible for outpatient treatment. This study aims to establish a transition of care program in the ED for patients with DVT presenting with an acute uncomplicated DVT. METHODS This article specifies the transition of care(More)
Effective venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in hospitalized medically-ill patients and those undergoing orthopaedic surgery remains a challenge for clinicians in the United States. Several new oral anticoagulants, which either directly inhibit the activity of thrombin or factor Xa have been developed and studied for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention(More)
Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common clinically significant cardiac arrhythmia occurring in patients in the United States. The primary clinical consequence of AF is an increase in the risk and severity of strokes. Treatment guidelines recommend anticoagulation therapy for most patients with AF. One risk-stratification scheme, the CHADS2(More)