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Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is an autosomal dominant heritable skeletal disease caused by heterozygous mutations in the osteoblast-specific transcription factor RUNX2. We have performed mutational analysis of RUNX2 on 24 unrelated patients with CCD. In 17 patients, 16 distinct mutations were detected in the coding region of RUNX2: 4 frameshift, 3(More)
One of the main themes in text mining is text representation, which is fundamental and indispensable for text-based intellegent information processing. Generally, text representation inludes two tasks: indexing and weighting. This paper has comparatively studied TFÃIDF, LSI and multi-word for text representation. We used a Chinese and an English document(More)
One of the deficiencies of mutual information is its poor capacity to measure association of words with unsymmetrical co-occurrence, which has large amounts for multi-word expression in texts. Moreover, threshold setting, which is decisive for success of practical implementation of mutual information for multi-word extraction, brings about many parameters(More)
Providing humoral immunity, antibody-secreting plasma cells and their immediate precursors, the plasmablasts, are generated in systemic and mucosal immune reactions. Despite their key role in maintaining immunity and immunopathology, little is known about their homeostasis. Here we show that plasmablasts and plasma cells are always detectable in human blood(More)
Inspired by the ideas of Swarm Intelligence and the " global brain " , a concept of " community intelligence " is suggested in the present paper, reflecting that some " intelligent " features may emerge in a Web-mediated online community from interactions and knowledge-transmissions between the community members. This possible research field of community(More)
—Text representation, which is a fundamental and necessary process for text-based intelligent information processing, includes the tasks of determining the index terms for documents and producing the numeric vectors corresponding to the documents. In this paper, multi-word, which is regarded as containing more contextual semantics than individual word and(More)
Vaccination provides a powerful means to control infections. It exploits and exemplifies the ability of the immune system to preserve the information that a specific pathogen has been encountered in the past. The cells and molecular mechanisms of immunological memory are still being discussed controversially. Here, we review the current concepts of memory B(More)
Immunological memory, as provided by antibodies, depends on the continued presence of antibody-secreting cells, such as long-lived plasma cells of the bone marrow. Survival niches for these memory plasma cells are limited in number. In an established immune system, acquisition of new plasma cells, generated in response to recent pathogenic challenges,(More)