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Sodium (Na) homeostasis is crucial for life, and Na levels in body fluids are constantly monitored in the brain. The subfornical organ (SFO) is the center of the sensing responsible for the control of salt-intake behavior, where Na(x) channels are expressed in specific glial cells as the Na-level sensor. Here, we show direct interaction between Na(x)(More)
Na(x) is an atypical sodium channel that is assumed to be a descendant of the voltage-gated sodium channel family. Our recent studies on the Na(x)-gene-targeting mouse revealed that Na(x) channel is localized to the circumventricular organs (CVOs), the central loci for the salt and water homeostasis in mammals, where the Na(x) channel serves as a(More)
Dehydration causes an increase in the sodium (Na) concentration and osmolarity of body fluid. For Na homeostasis of the body, controls of Na and water intake and excretion are of prime importance. However, the system for sensing the Na level within the brain that is responsible for the control of Na- and water-intake behavior remains to be elucidated. We(More)
Na(x) is the sodium-level sensor of body fluids in the brain involved in sodium homeostasis. Na(x)-knockout mice do not stop ingesting salt even when dehydrated. Here we report a case with clinical features of essential hypernatremia without demonstrable hypothalamic structural lesions, who was diagnosed as a paraneoplastic neurologic disorder. The patient(More)
Na(x) is an extracellular sodium-level-sensitive sodium channel expressed in the circumventricular organs in the brain, essential loci for the sodium-level homeostasis in body fluids. Here, we examined the localization of Na(x) throughout the visceral organs at the cellular level. In visceral organs including lung, heart, intestine, bladder, kidney and(More)
In dehydrated animals, the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin (VP) is released from the nerve terminals of magnocellular neurons of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) into the systemic circulation at the posterior pituitary. Increases in sodium (Na+)-level and osmolality in body fluids upon dehydration are reportedly sensed by a(More)
In animals, body-fluid osmolality is continuously monitored to keep it within a narrow range around a set point (∼300 mOsm/kg). Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), a cation channel, has been implicated in body-fluid homeostasis in vivo based on studies with the TRPV1-knockout mouse. However, the response of TRPV1 to hypertonic stimuli has not(More)
Salt homeostasis is essential to survival, but brain mechanisms for salt-intake control have not been fully elucidated. Here, we found that the sensitivity of Na(x) channels to [Na(+)](o) is dose-dependently enhanced by endothelin-3 (ET-3). Na(x) channels began to open when [Na(+)](o) exceeded ~150 mM without ET-3, but opened fully at a physiological(More)
Na(x), which is preferentially expressed in the glial cells of sensory circumventricular organs in the brain, is a sodium channel that is poorly homologous to voltage-gated sodium channels. We previously reported that Na(x) is a sodium concentration ([Na(+)])-sensitive, but not a voltage-sensitive channel that is critically involved in body-fluid(More)