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At birth the trans-placental nutrient supply is suddenly interrupted, and neonates face severe starvation until supply can be restored through milk nutrients. Here, we show that neonates adapt to this adverse circumstance by inducing autophagy. Autophagy is the primary means for the degradation of cytoplasmic constituents within lysosomes. The level of(More)
In macroautophagy, cytoplasmic components are delivered to lysosomes for degradation via autophagosomes that are formed by closure of cup-shaped isolation membranes. However, how the isolation membranes are formed is poorly understood. We recently found in yeast that a novel ubiquitin-like system, the Apg12-Apg5 conjugation system, is essential for(More)
The following evidence, mainly presented here, suggests that IgD receptors play a crucial role in determining the potential for affinity maturation in memory B cell populations. IgD receptors are present on the first memory B cells to appear after priming. These memory cells give rise to more-mature memory cells that have lost their IgD receptors. The(More)
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta has been implicated in immunosuppression. However, it remains obscure whether regulation of T cells by TGF-beta contributes to the immunosuppression in vivo. To address this issue, we developed transgenic mice expressing Smad7, an intracellular antagonist of TGF-beta/Smad signaling, selectively in mature T cells using a(More)
Controlling osteoclastogenesis is critical to maintain physiological bone homeostasis and prevent skeletal disorders. Although signaling activating nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFATc1), a transcription factor essential for osteoclastogenesis, has been intensively investigated, factors antagonistic to NFATc1 in osteoclasts have not been(More)
For the mammalian olfactory epithelium to continually detect odorant, neuronal survival, apoptosis, and regeneration must be coordinated. Here, we showed that the proto-oncogene BCL6, which encodes a transcriptional repressor required for lymphocyte terminal differentiation, contributes to the survival of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). In the olfactory(More)
We have described here two distinct types of carrier-specific helper T cells which act independently and synergistically to augment the B-cell response to a hapten. They are separable by passage through a nylon wool column. The first type of helper T cell, which we designate as Th1, is nylon nonadherent, and can help the response of hapten-primed B cells(More)
The signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) family proteins are transcription factors critical in mediating cytokine signaling. Among them, STAT3 is often constitutively phosphorylated and activated in human cancers and in transformed cell lines and is implicated in tumorigenesis. However, cause of the persistent activation of STAT3 in human(More)
The Bcl6 gene has been identified from the chromosomal translocation breakpoint in B cell lymphomas, and its products are expressed highly in germinal center (GC) B cells. To investigate the function of Bcl6 in lymphocytes, we have generated RAG1-deficient mice reconstituted with bone marrow cells from Bcl6-deficient mice (Bcl6(-/-)RM). Lymphogenesis in(More)
The antigen-specific suppressive T-cell factor of mice, which had previously been shown to be an I region gene product, could effectively suppress the in vitro secondary antibody response of spleen cells from syngeneic or H-2 compatible mouse strains but not that of H-2 incompatible strains. The identities among genes in the left side half (K, I-A, and I-B)(More)