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Cryptochrome (CRY) is intimately associated with the circadian clock of many organisms. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, CRY seems to be involved in photoreception as well as in the core clockwork. In spite of the critical role of CRY for the clock of Drosophila, it was not quite clear whether CRY is expressed in every clock cell. With the help of(More)
Cryptochromes regulate the circadian clock in animals and plants. Humans and mice have two cryptochrome (Cry) genes. A previous study showed that mice lacking the Cry2 gene had reduced sensitivity to acute light induction of the circadian gene mPer1 in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and had an intrinsic period 1 hr longer than normal. In this study,(More)
Life is controlled by multiple rhythms. Although the interaction of the daily (circadian) clock with environmental stimuli, such as light, is well documented, its relationship to endogenous clocks with other periods is little understood. We establish that the marine worm Platynereis dumerilii possesses endogenous circadian and circalunar (monthly) clocks(More)
Cryptochromes are photoreceptors that regulate entrainment by light of the circadian clock in plants and animals. They also act as integral parts of the central circadian oscillator in animal brains and as receptors controlling photomorphogenesis in response to blue or ultraviolet (UV-A) light in plants. Cryptochromes are probably the evolutionary(More)
In order to identify the mesencephalic spinal pathways for initiation of swimming in the carp, we employed electrical and chemical microstimulation of the mesencephalic tegmentum. Electrical stimulation of the midbrain in decerebrate carp produced bilateral or unilateral rhythmic movements of the tail. Bilateral alternating movements were induced by(More)
In the mammalian brain, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus is considered to be the principal circadian pacemaker, keeping the rhythm of most physiological and behavioral processes on the basis of light/dark cycles. Because restriction of food availability to a certain time of day elicits anticipatory behavior even after ablation(More)
UV radiation induces two major classes of pyrimidine dimers: the pyrimidine [6-4] pyrimidone photoproduct (6-4 product) and the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD). Many organisms produce enzymes, termed photolyases, that specifically bind to these damage products and split them via a UV-A/blue light-dependent mechanism, thereby reversing the damage. These(More)
Nocturnal enuresis in children and nocturia in the elderly are two highly prevalent clinical conditions characterized by a mismatch between urine production rate in the kidneys and storage in the urinary bladder during the sleep phase. Here we demonstrate, using a novel method for automated recording of mouse micturition, that connexin43, a bladder gap(More)
Mouse mCRY1 and zebrafish zCRY1a and zCRY3 belong to the DNA photolyase/Cryptochrome family. mCRY1 and zCRY1a repress CLOCK:BMAL1-mediated transcription, whereas zCRY3 does not. Reciprocal chimeras between zCRY1a and zCRY3 were generated to determine the zCRY1a regions responsible for nuclear translocation, interaction with the CLOCK:BMAL1 heterodimer, and(More)
BACKGROUND Light is the major environmental signal for the entrainment of circadian rhythms. In Drosophila melanogaster, the period(per) and timeless (tim) genes are required for circadian behavioural rhythms and their expression levels undergo circadian fluctuations. Light signals can entrain these rhythms by shifting their phases. However, little is known(More)