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Cryptochromes regulate the circadian clock in animals and plants. Humans and mice have two cryptochrome (Cry) genes. A previous study showed that mice lacking the Cry2 gene had reduced sensitivity to acute light induction of the circadian gene mPer1 in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and had an intrinsic period 1 hr longer than normal. In this study,(More)
Cryptochrome (CRY) is intimately associated with the circadian clock of many organisms. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, CRY seems to be involved in photoreception as well as in the core clockwork. In spite of the critical role of CRY for the clock of Drosophila, it was not quite clear whether CRY is expressed in every clock cell. With the help of(More)
In 1975, a Greek letter nomenclature system was introduced to designate DNA polymerases from mammalian cells (1). Ten years ago, progress in the biochemical analysis of eukaryotic DNA polymerases and in the isolation of their genes, particularly in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, necessitated a revision of the Greek letter nomenclature system and an(More)
Nocturnal enuresis in children and nocturia in the elderly are two highly prevalent clinical conditions characterized by a mismatch between urine production rate in the kidneys and storage in the urinary bladder during the sleep phase. Here we demonstrate, using a novel method for automated recording of mouse micturition, that connexin43, a bladder gap(More)
The circadian oscillator is composed of a transcription/translation-based autoregulatory feedback loop in which Cryptochromes and Periods function as negative regulators for their own gene expression. Although post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation of these regulators appear crucial for circadian time-keeping mechanism, less is known about(More)
CLOCK is a positive component of a transcription/translation-based negative feedback loop of the central circadian oscillator in the suprachiasmatic nucleus in mammals. To examine CLOCK-regulated circadian transcription in peripheral tissues, we performed microarray analyses using liver RNA isolated from Clock mutant mice. We also compared expression(More)
Recently, a human cDNA clone with high sequence homology to the photolyase/blue-light photoreceptor family was identified. The putative protein encoded by this gene exhibited a strikingly high (48% identity) degree of homology to the Drosophila melanogaster (6-4) photolyase [Todo et al. (1996) Science 272, 109-112]. We have now identified a second human(More)
The clinical significance of human papillomavirus (HPV) in neck node metastasis from cancer of unknown primary (CUP) is not well established. We aimed to address the relationship of HPV status between node metastasis and the primary tumor, and also the relevance of HPV status regarding radiographically detected cystic node metastasis in head and neck(More)
Cryptochromes are photoreceptors that regulate entrainment by light of the circadian clock in plants and animals. They also act as integral parts of the central circadian oscillator in animal brains and as receptors controlling photomorphogenesis in response to blue or ultraviolet (UV-A) light in plants. Cryptochromes are probably the evolutionary(More)