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Cryptochromes regulate the circadian clock in animals and plants. Humans and mice have two cryptochrome (Cry) genes. A previous study showed that mice lacking the Cry2 gene had reduced sensitivity to acute light induction of the circadian gene mPer1 in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and had an intrinsic period 1 hr longer than normal. In this study,(More)
Cryptochrome flavoproteins, which share sequence homology with light-dependent DNA repair photolyases, function as photoreceptors in plants and circadian clock components in animals. Here, we coupled sequencing of an Arabidopsis cryptochrome gene with phylogenetic, structural, and functional analyses to identify a new cryptochrome class (cryptochrome DASH)(More)
UV radiation induces two major classes of pyrimidine dimers: the pyrimidine [6-4] pyrimidone photoproduct (6-4 product) and the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD). Many organisms produce enzymes, termed photolyases, that specifically bind to these damage products and split them via a UV-A/blue light-dependent mechanism, thereby reversing the damage. These(More)
Cryptochrome (CRY) is intimately associated with the circadian clock of many organisms. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, CRY seems to be involved in photoreception as well as in the core clockwork. In spite of the critical role of CRY for the clock of Drosophila, it was not quite clear whether CRY is expressed in every clock cell. With the help of(More)
In 1975, a Greek letter nomenclature system was introduced to designate DNA polymerases from mammalian cells (1). Ten years ago, progress in the biochemical analysis of eukaryotic DNA polymerases and in the isolation of their genes, particularly in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, necessitated a revision of the Greek letter nomenclature system and an(More)
CLOCK is a positive component of a transcription/translation-based negative feedback loop of the central circadian oscillator in the suprachiasmatic nucleus in mammals. To examine CLOCK-regulated circadian transcription in peripheral tissues, we performed microarray analyses using liver RNA isolated from Clock mutant mice. We also compared expression(More)
Photolyase is a DNA repair enzyme that reverses UV-induced photoproducts in DNA in a light-dependent manner. Recently, photolyase homologs were identified in higher eukaryotes. These homologs, termed crypto-chromes, function as blue light photoreceptors or regulators of circadian rhythm. In contrast, most bacteria have only a single photolyase or(More)
Nocturnal enuresis in children and nocturia in the elderly are two highly prevalent clinical conditions characterized by a mismatch between urine production rate in the kidneys and storage in the urinary bladder during the sleep phase. Here we demonstrate, using a novel method for automated recording of mouse micturition, that connexin43, a bladder gap(More)
Recently, a human cDNA clone with high sequence homology to the photolyase/blue-light photoreceptor family was identified. The putative protein encoded by this gene exhibited a strikingly high (48% identity) degree of homology to the Drosophila melanogaster (6-4) photolyase [Todo et al. (1996) Science 272, 109-112]. We have now identified a second human(More)