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Control of parasite transmission is critical for the eradication of malaria. However, most antimalarial drugs are not active against P. falciparum gametocytes, responsible for the spread of malaria. Consequently, patients can remain infectious for weeks after the clearance of asexual parasites and clinical symptoms. Here we report the identification of 27(More)
An object location test (OLT) has been developed to test spatial memory in rats. The test is based on the spontaneous tendency of rodents, previously exposed to two identical objects, to later explore one of the objects--replaced in a novel location--for a longer time than they explore the non-displaced object. In this study, we established the OLT in mice(More)
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a cyclic amino acid neuropeptide localized in the lateral hypothalamus. Although MCH is thought to be an important regulator of feeding behavior, the involvement of this peptide in body weight control has been unclear. To examine the role of MCH in the development of obesity, we assessed the effect of chronic(More)
PURPOSE Rikkunshito is a traditional Japanese medicine that is widely used for treating upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Our purpose is to clarify the effect of Rikkunshito on the levels of peptide hormones and cytokines in healthy humans and mice. METHODS We administered Rikkunshito, 7.5 g per day, to 21 healthy volunteers for 2 weeks and examined the(More)
Osteoporosis has recently been recognized as a major comorbidity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We conducted a cross-sectional study in a cohort of 136 Japanese males with COPD to evaluate the prevalence of vertebral fracture (VF) and to explore its relationship with pulmonary function parameters. VFs were present in 108 (79.4%); multiple(More)
PURPOSE To develop a new animal model of anterior subcapsular cataract formation by topical application of alkali to the eye and to examine the role of Transforming growth factorbeta/Smad3 (TGFbeta/Smad3) signaling in the formation of this cataract model. METHODS Under anesthesia, one eye of adult Wistar rats (n=142) was subjected to alkali burn by(More)
The hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakaraensis KOD1 possesses chitinase (Tk-ChiA) and exo-beta-D-glucosaminidase (Tk-GlmA) for chitin degradation; the former produces diacetylchitobiose (GlcNAc2) from chitin, and the latter hydrolyzes chitobiose (GlcN2) to glucosamine (GlcN). To identify the enzyme that physiologically links these two activities,(More)
We previously clarified that the chitinase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakaraensis KOD1 produces diacetylchitobiose (GlcNAc(2)) as an end product from chitin. Here we sought to identify enzymes in T. kodakaraensis that were involved in the further degradation of GlcNAc(2). Through a search of the T. kodakaraensis genome, one candidate(More)
It is generally accepted that the mitochondria play central roles in energy production of most eukaryotes. In contrast, it has been thought that Plasmodium spp., the causative agent of malaria, rely mainly on cytosolic glycolysis but not mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation for energy production during blood stages. However, Plasmodium spp. possesses all(More)
The Tk-ptp gene encoding a protein tyrosine phosphatase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakaraensis KOD1 was cloned and biochemical characteristics of the recombinant protein (Tk-PTP) were examined. A series of mutants, D63A (replacing Asp-63 with Ala), C93S, C93A, R99K, and R99M, were also constructed and analyzed. Two unique features(More)