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BACKGROUND Dinoflagellates are known for their capacity to form harmful blooms (e.g., "red tides") and as symbiotic, photosynthetic partners for corals. These unicellular eukaryotes have permanently condensed, liquid-crystalline chromosomes and immense nuclear genome sizes, often several times the size of the human genome. Here we describe the first draft(More)
The study of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata is key to increasing our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in pearl biosynthesis and biology of bivalve molluscs. We sequenced ~1150-Mb genome at ~40-fold coverage using the Roche 454 GS-FLX and Illumina GAIIx sequencers. The sequences were assembled into contigs with N50 = 1.6 kb (total contig(More)
Regional expression patterns of shell matrix protein genes of Pinctada fucata were investigated using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in situ hybridization. Six shell matrix proteins examined in this study indicated a distinct biphasic pattern of expression, falling into one of the following three groups: (1) expressed only in the(More)
The evolutionary origins of lingulid brachiopods and their calcium phosphate shells have been obscure. Here we decode the 425-Mb genome of Lingula anatina to gain insights into brachiopod evolution. Comprehensive phylogenomic analyses place Lingula close to molluscs, but distant from annelids. The Lingula gene number has increased to ∼34,000 by extensive(More)
Biominerals, especially molluscan shells, generally contain unusually acidic proteins. These proteins are believed to function in crystal nucleation and inhibition. We previously identified an unusually acidic protein Aspein from the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata. Here we show that Aspein can control the CaCO(3) polymorph (calcite/aragonite) in vitro. While(More)
We isolated the full-length cDNAs of engrailed and dpp-BMP2/4 orthologues from the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis and examined their expression patterns during development by the whole mount in situ hybridization. At the gastrula and trochophore stages, engrailed is expressed in the peripheral ectoderm of the presumptive and invaginating shell gland,(More)
Genome sequencing of Symbiodinium minutum revealed that 95 of 109 plastid-associated genes have been transferred to the nuclear genome and subsequently expanded by gene duplication. Only 14 genes remain in plastids and occur as DNA minicircles. Each minicircle (1.8-3.3 kb) contains one gene and a conserved noncoding region containing putative promoters and(More)
Bivalve molluscs have flourished in marine environments, and many species constitute important aquatic resources. Recently, whole genome sequences from two bivalves, the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata, and the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, have been decoded, making it possible to compare genomic sequences among molluscs, and to explore general and(More)
We constructed a web-based genome annotation platform, MarinegenomicsDB, to integrate genome data from various marine organisms including the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata and the coral Acropora digitifera. This newly developed viewer application provides open access to published data and a user-friendly environment for community-based manual gene(More)
In molluscs, shell matrix proteins are associated with biomineralization, a biologically controlled process that involves nucleation and growth of calcium carbonate crystals. Identification and characterization of shell matrix proteins are important for better understanding of the adaptive radiation of a large variety of molluscs. We searched the draft(More)