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Teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) is one of the most durable timbers in the world that is used for all conceivable purposes. Its widespread use has constrained the distribution of species to small and isolated populations. The genetic structure within and between nine natural teak growing forests of the Western Ghats of India belonging to the states of Kerala,(More)
In order to assess the role of circulating blood in early microglial activation after traumatic brain injury (TBI), controlled cortical impact injury was applied to adult rat brain slices (400 microm in thickness) and the microglial response was examined. The complement receptor (CR3) expression and morphological transformation of the microglia were(More)
Doublecortin (DCX)-immunoreactive (-ir) cells are candidates that play key roles in adult cortical remodeling. We have previously reported that DCX-ir cells decrease after stress exposure or global brain ischemia (GBI) in the cingulate cortex (Cg) of rats. Herein, we investigate whether the decrease in DCX-ir cells is exacerbated after GBI due to acute(More)
Following CNS injury, microglia respond and transform into reactive species exhibiting characteristic morphological changes that have been termed "activated" or "ameboid" microglia. In an attempt to establish that microglial reactions induced immediately after injury are caused by intrinsic mechanisms rather than infiltration of blood and its constituents,(More)
OBJECTIVE Both microglia and astrocytes respond immediately to traumatic brain injury (TBI). The present study was undertaken to examine whether or not excitatory amino acid (EAA) antagonists could attenuate such glial responses. METHODS EAA antagonists, including the broad spectrum EAA antagonist, kynurenic acid (KYN), specific N-methyl-D-aspartate(More)
Exposure to acute stress by forced swim impairs spatial learning and memory in rats. The retrosplenial cortex plays an important role in spatial learning and memory. A cell population that expresses immature neuronal markers, including doublecortin (DCX), plays a key role in plasticity of the adult brain through formation of new neurons. Here, we aimed to(More)
OBJECTIVE Ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADA) should be treated promptly because of the high risk of rebleeding. However, it is difficult to treat dissecting aneurysm during the acute stage using microsurgery because of high intracranial pressure or brain edema. Therefore, endovascular treatment of the ruptured VADA may be a better(More)
BACKGROUND We present here the first report of a jugular bulb venous thrombosis after mild head injury, which lacked either a skull fracture or abnormal findings on CT scan. CASE DESCRIPTION An 8-year-old boy was hit on the back of the head and experienced headache and vomiting beginning the next morning. A CT scan and cranial x-ray examination failed to(More)
BACKGROUND Psychological distress is a risk factor of stroke in humans and worsens the behavioral and neurological outcomes. In rats, acute stress exposure preceding ischemic events attenuates learning and memory. The retrosplenial cortex (RS) plays an important role in these functions, and global brain ischemia (GBI) or acute stress exposure can induce a(More)