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To clarify the crucial role of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR9 in immature gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT), we focused on the expression of TLR2 and TLR9 and the immune responses induced by their ligands in the GALT of presuckling newborn swine. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that TLR2 and TLR9 mRNA were expressed at detectable levels in all(More)
We isolated cDNA encoding porcine nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor family, pryin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) from Peyer's patches. The complete nucleotide open reading frame of porcine NLRP3 contains 3108-bp encoding a deduced polypeptide of 1036-amino acid residues. The porcine NLRP3 amino acid sequence is more similar to the longest isoform of(More)
We previously reported the strong immunostimulatory effects of a CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), designated MsST, from the lacZ gene of Streptococcus (S.) thermophilus ATCC19258. Here we show that 24h of stimulation with MsST in mouse splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages strongly induces expression of interleukin (IL)-33, a cytokine in the IL-1(More)
Wound healing is mediated through complex interactions between circulating immune cells and local epithelial and endothelial cells. Elements of the innate immune system are triggered when Toll-like receptors (TLR) are stimulated by their cognate ligands, and previous studies suggest that such interactions can accelerate wound healing. This work examines the(More)
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) released from intestinal L cells in response to nutrient ingestion inhibits both gastrointestinal emptying and gastric acid secretion and promotes satiety. The main biological effect of GLP-1 is the stimulation of insulin secretion (thereby fulfilling the criterion for an incretin hormone) in order to reduce blood glucose(More)
Interleukin-17 (IL-17), initially reported as CTLA-8, is a proinflammatory cytokine produced mainly by activated T cells. In the present study, the cDNA of a swine IL-17 (PoIL-17) gene was cloned from activated neonatal thymocytes, and the recombinant PoIL-17 (rPoIL-17) was biologically characterized. The complete open reading frame (ORF) of PoIL-17(More)
Probiotics/prebiotics have the ability to modulate the balance and activities of the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota, and are, thus, considered beneficial to the host animal and have been used as functional foods. Numerous factors, such as dietary and management constraints, have been shown to markedly affect the structure and activities of gut microbial(More)
Here, we report a simple and low-cost oral oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) delivery system targeted to the gut Peyer's patches (PPs). This system requires only Dulbecco's modified eagle's medium, calcium chloride, ODNs, and basic laboratory equipment. ODN nanocapsules (ODNcaps) were directly delivered to the PPs through oral administration and were taken up by(More)
Immunostimulatory sequences of oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), such as CpG ODNs, are potent stimulators of innate immunity. Here, we identified a strong immunostimulatory CpG ODN, which we named MsST, from the lac Z gene of Streptococcus (S.) thermophilus ATCC19258, and we evaluated its immune functions. In in vitro studies, MsST had a similar ability as the(More)
The effect of Lactobacillus jensenii TL2937 on the inflammatory immune response triggered by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a porcine intestinal epitheliocyte cell line (PIE cells) was evaluated. Challenges with ETEC or LPS elicited Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated inflammatory responses in cultured PIE cells,(More)