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To clarify the crucial role of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR9 in immature gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT), we focused on the expression of TLR2 and TLR9 and the immune responses induced by their ligands in the GALT of presuckling newborn swine. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that TLR2 and TLR9 mRNA were expressed at detectable levels in all(More)
We isolated cDNA encoding porcine nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor family, pryin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) from Peyer's patches. The complete nucleotide open reading frame of porcine NLRP3 contains 3108-bp encoding a deduced polypeptide of 1036-amino acid residues. The porcine NLRP3 amino acid sequence is more similar to the longest isoform of(More)
The present study was conducted to find an immunostimulatory oligonucleotide derived from yogurt starter cultures. The chromosomal DNA was purified from nine strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and six strains of Streptococcus thermophilus. An immunostimulatory ability of the DNA was examined in a proliferation of peyer's patch and splenic(More)
Wound healing is mediated through complex interactions between circulating immune cells and local epithelial and endothelial cells. Elements of the innate immune system are triggered when Toll-like receptors (TLR) are stimulated by their cognate ligands, and previous studies suggest that such interactions can accelerate wound healing. This work examines the(More)
Whole cells, cell wall components and some soluble factors from Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) are known to invoke immune responses as they interact with animal and human immune cells. In the present study, we found that chromosomal DNA from LGG is a potent inducer of splenic B cell proliferation, CD86/CD69 expression and cytokine production in mice. In(More)
We previously reported the strong immunostimulatory effects of a CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), designated MsST, from the lacZ gene of Streptococcus (S.) thermophilus ATCC19258. Here we show that 24h of stimulation with MsST in mouse splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages strongly induces expression of interleukin (IL)-33, a cytokine in the IL-1(More)
The precise distribution and expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALTs) has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern of TLR9 in adult and neonatal swine GALTs by real-time quantitative PCR, western blot, confocal laser microscopy and flow cytometric analysis. The swine TLR9 gene was(More)
The Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 binds a wide variety of microbial cell wall components. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern of TLR2 in adult swine gut-associated lymphoid tissues using real-time quantitative PCR, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometric analysis. The mRNA for TLR2 was preferentially expressed in the(More)
The effect of Lactobacillus jensenii TL2937 on the inflammatory immune response triggered by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a porcine intestinal epitheliocyte cell line (PIE cells) was evaluated. Challenges with ETEC or LPS elicited Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated inflammatory responses in cultured PIE cells,(More)
Interleukin-17 (IL-17), initially reported as CTLA-8, is a proinflammatory cytokine produced mainly by activated T cells. In the present study, the cDNA of a swine IL-17 (PoIL-17) gene was cloned from activated neonatal thymocytes, and the recombinant PoIL-17 (rPoIL-17) was biologically characterized. The complete open reading frame (ORF) of PoIL-17(More)