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Although turtles (order Testudines) constitute one of the major reptile groups, their phylogenetic relationships remain largely unresolved. Hence, we attempted to elucidate their phylogeny using the SINE (short interspersed repetitive element) method, in which the sharing of a SINE at orthologous loci is indicative of synapomorphy. First, a detailed(More)
OBJECT Concussion is a common injury in ice hockey and a health problem for the general population. Traumatic axonal injury has been associated with concussions (also referred to as mild traumatic brain injuries), yet the pathological course that leads from injury to recovery or to long-term sequelae is still not known. This study investigated the(More)
Divergent natural selection acting on ecological traits, which also affect mate choice, is a key element of ecological speciation theory, but has not previously been demonstrated at the molecular gene level to our knowledge. Here we demonstrate parallel evolution in two cichlid genera under strong divergent selection in a gene that affects both. Strong(More)
Multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) is an atypical lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by systemic lymphadenopathy and constitutional inflammatory symptoms. Dysregulated overproduction of interleukin-6 is responsible for the clinical abnormalities. This multicenter prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a humanized(More)
OBJECT The aim of this study was to examine the brain's white matter microstructure by using MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in ice hockey players with a history of clinically symptomatic concussion compared with players without a history of concussion. METHODS Sixteen players with a history of concussion (concussed group; mean age 21.7 ± 1.5 years; 6(More)
Retroposons, such as short interspersed elements (SINEs) and long interspersed elements (LINEs), are the major constituents of higher vertebrate genomes. Although there are many examples of retroposons' acquiring function, none has been implicated in the morphological innovations specific to a certain taxonomic group. We previously characterized a SINE(More)
BACKGROUND Although it has been demonstrated that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in the arterial remodeling in atherosclerosis and restenosis, it is not clear which MMP is involved in which process. To define the role of MMP-2 in arterial remodeling, we evaluated the influence of the targeted deletion of the MMP-2 gene on vascular(More)
BACKGROUND Assessing the drug resistance of leukemic cells is important for treatment of leukemia. We developed a quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR method for multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) and multidrug resistance-related protein 1 (MRP1) transcripts to evaluate drug resistance, and applied it to clinical samples. METHODS The cutoffs for copy(More)
OBJECT Concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), is a commonly occurring sports-related injury, especially in contact sports such as hockey. Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), which appear as small, hypointense lesions on T₂*-weighted images, can result from TBI. The authors use susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) to automatically detect small(More)