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Geant4 is a toolkit for simulating the passage of particles through matter. It includes a complete range of functionality including tracking, geometry, physics models and hits. The physics processes offered cover a comprehensive range, including electromagnetic, hadronic and optical processes, a large set of long-lived particles, materials and elements,(More)
Although turtles (order Testudines) constitute one of the major reptile groups, their phylogenetic relationships remain largely unresolved. Hence, we attempted to elucidate their phylogeny using the SINE (short interspersed repetitive element) method, in which the sharing of a SINE at orthologous loci is indicative of synapomorphy. First, a detailed(More)
OBJECT Concussion is a common injury in ice hockey and a health problem for the general population. Traumatic axonal injury has been associated with concussions (also referred to as mild traumatic brain injuries), yet the pathological course that leads from injury to recovery or to long-term sequelae is still not known. This study investigated the(More)
Divergent natural selection acting on ecological traits, which also affect mate choice, is a key element of ecological speciation theory, but has not previously been demonstrated at the molecular gene level to our knowledge. Here we demonstrate parallel evolution in two cichlid genera under strong divergent selection in a gene that affects both. Strong(More)
The results of the second phase of the Super-Kamiokande solar neutrino measurement are presented and compared to the first phase. The solar neutrino flux spectrum and time-variation as 2 well as oscillation results are statistically consistent with the first phase and do not show spectral distortion. The time-dependent flux measurement of the combined first(More)
OBJECT The aim of this study was to examine the brain's white matter microstructure by using MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in ice hockey players with a history of clinically symptomatic concussion compared with players without a history of concussion. METHODS Sixteen players with a history of concussion (concussed group; mean age 21.7 ± 1.5 years; 6(More)
Multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) is an atypical lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by systemic lymphadenopathy and constitutional inflammatory symptoms. Dysregulated overproduction of interleukin-6 is responsible for the clinical abnormalities. This multicenter prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a humanized(More)
Retroposons, such as short interspersed elements (SINEs) and long interspersed elements (LINEs), are the major constituents of higher vertebrate genomes. Although there are many examples of retroposons' acquiring function, none has been implicated in the morphological innovations specific to a certain taxonomic group. We previously characterized a SINE(More)
OBJECT Concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), is a commonly occurring sports-related injury, especially in contact sports such as hockey. Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), which appear as small, hypointense lesions on T₂*-weighted images, can result from TBI. The authors use susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) to automatically detect small(More)
RATIONALE Central norepinephrine transporter (NET) is one of the main targets of antidepressants. Although the measurement of NET occupancy has been attempted in humans, the outcomes have been inconclusive. OBJECTIVE In this study, the occupancy of NET by different doses of an antidepressant, nortriptyline, was measured using positron emission tomography(More)