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In addition to haem copper oxidases, all higher plants, some algae, yeasts, molds, metazoans, and pathogenic microorganisms such as Trypanosoma brucei contain an additional terminal oxidase, the cyanide-insensitive alternative oxidase (AOX). AOX is a diiron carboxylate protein that catalyzes the four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water by ubiquinol. In(More)
The aspartate chemoreceptor Tar has a thermosensing function that is modulated by covalent modification of its four methylation sites (Gln295, Glu302, Gln309, and Glu491). Without posttranslational deamidation, Tar has no thermosensing ability. When Gln295 and Gln309 are deamidated to Glu, the unmethylated and heavily methylated forms function as warm and(More)
Cell walls of 19 Micromonospora species were analyzed for their components. All the cell walls had xylose and arabinose, but the presence of glucose, galactose, mannose, or rhamnose depended on the strain. Amino acids present in the walls consisted of glycine, glutamic acid, diaminopimelic acid, and alanine, in a molar ratio of approximately 1:1:1:0.6--0.8.(More)
The Escherichia coli gene recA is essential for homologous recombination and DNA repair, and homologs have been identified in eukaryotes. A basidiomycete, Coprinus cinereus, which has many advantages for the study of meiosis, was recently reported to have a homolog of one of these, RAD51. In the yeast Saccharomyces, mutations in the RAD51 gene cause defects(More)
Accumulating evidence indicates that a small population of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is involved in intrinsic resistance to cancer treatment. The hypoxic microenvironment is an important stem cell niche that promotes the persistence of CSCs in tumors. Our aim here was to elucidate the role of hypoxia and CSCs in the resistance to gefitinib in non-small cell(More)
Except for imported cases, we have had no new Schistosoma japonicum infection in Japan since 1977. But there are still two habitats of the intermediate snail host: Oncomelania nosophora in the previous endemic areas of Kofu Basin and Obitsu. O. nosophora from Kofu Basin and Obitsu are susceptible to Chinese and Philippine strains of S. japonicum. The number(More)
BACKGROUND The flagellate protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, is a causative agent of Chagas disease that is transmitted by reduviid bugs to humans. The parasite exists in multiple morphological forms in both vector and host, and cell differentiation in T. cruzi is tightly associated with stage-specific protein synthesis and degradation. However, the(More)
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES Trypanosoma cruzi infection has been shown to induce humoral autoimmune responses against host antigens tissues. Particularly, antibodies cross-reacting with myocardial antigens may play a role in the development of the severe forms of chronic Chagas disease. The aim of this study was to determine the association between clinical(More)
In animals, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3 Rs) are ion channels that play a pivotal role in many biological processes by mediating Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a novel IP3 R in the parasitic protist, Trypanosoma cruzi, the pathogen responsible for Chagas disease. DT40(More)
Trypanosoma cruzi, a protozoan causing Chagas' disease, excretes a considerable amount of succinate even though it uses the TCA cycle and the aerobic respiratory chain. For this reason, it was believed that unknown metabolic pathways participate in succinate production in this parasite. In the present study, we examined the molecular properties of(More)