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Plant steroid hormones, brassinosteroids (BRs), are perceived by a cell surface receptor kinase, BRI1, but how BR binding leads to regulation of gene expression in the nucleus is unknown. Here we describe the identification of BZR1 as a nuclear component of the BR signal transduction pathway. A dominant mutation bzr1-1D suppresses BR-deficient and(More)
Strigolactones (SLs) have recently been found to regulate shoot branching, but the functions of SLs at other stages of development and the regulation of SL-related gene expression are mostly unknown in Arabidopsis. In this study, we performed real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and microarray analysis using wild-type plants and(More)
Stomatal pores surrounded by a pair of guard cells in the plant epidermis control gas exchange for photosynthesis in response to light, CO(2), and phytohormone abscisic acid. Phototropins (phot1 and phot2) are plant blue-light receptor kinases and mediate stomatal opening via activation of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase. However, the signaling mechanism(More)
Progesterone is a mammalian gonadal hormone. In the current study, we identified and quantified progesterone in a range of higher plants by using GC-MS and examined its effects on the vegetative growth of plants. The growth of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings was promoted by progesterone at low concentrations but suppressed at higher(More)
Several studies have shown that differences in lipid composition and in the lipid biosynthetic pathway affect the aluminium (Al) tolerance of plants, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these differences. Phospholipids create a negative charge at the surface of the plasma membrane and enhance Al sensitivity as a result of the(More)
We analyzed global gene expression in Arabidopsis in response to various hormones and in related experiments as part of the AtGenExpress project. The experimental agents included seven basic phytohormones (auxin, cytokinin, gibberellin, brassinosteroid, abscisic acid, jasmonate and ethylene) and their inhibitors. In addition, gene expression was(More)
In animals, a large number of steroid hormones play important roles in numerous processes including reproduction and differentiation. The biologically active plant steroid brassinolide (BL) was first discovered in the pollen of western rape in 1979 (Grove et al., 1979). This finding suggested that BL is indispensable for plant growth and differentiation. To(More)
Plastids bear their own genome, organized into DNA-protein complexes (nucleoids). Recently, we identified a DNA-binding protease (CND41) in the chloroplast nucleoids of cultured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cells. In this study, we examine the biochemical function of this novel DNA-binding protease, particularly in senescent leaves, because antisense(More)
Brassinazole (Brz) is a specific inhibitor of the biosynthesis of brassinosteroids (BRs), which regulate plant organ and chloroplast development. We identified a recessive pale green Arabidopsis mutant, bpg2-1 (Brz-insensitive-pale green 2-1) that showed reduced sensitivity to chlorophyll accumulation promoted by Brz in the light. BPG2 encodes a(More)
Proanthocyanidins (PAs), which are flavonoid compounds widely distributed in the plant kingdom, protect against environmental stress. The accumulation of PAs is regulated by a ternary transcriptional complex comprising the R2R3-MYB transcription factor, a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor and a WD40 repeat (WDR) protein. Recently, multigene(More)