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Stomatal pores surrounded by a pair of guard cells in the plant epidermis control gas exchange for photosynthesis in response to light, CO(2), and phytohormone abscisic acid. Phototropins (phot1 and phot2) are plant blue-light receptor kinases and mediate stomatal opening via activation of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase. However, the signaling mechanism(More)
Several studies have shown that differences in lipid composition and in the lipid biosynthetic pathway affect the aluminium (Al) tolerance of plants, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these differences. Phospholipids create a negative charge at the surface of the plasma membrane and enhance Al sensitivity as a result of the(More)
Plant steroid hormones, brassinosteroids, are essential for growth, development and responses to environmental stresses in plants. Although BR signaling proteins are localized in many organelles, i.e., the plasma membrane, nuclei, endoplasmic reticulum and vacuole, the details regarding the BR signaling pathway from perception at the cellular membrane(More)
Understanding the role of 'epigenetic' changes such as DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling has now become critical in understanding many biological processes. In order to delineate the global methylation pattern in a given genomic DNA, computer software has been developed to create a virtual image of restriction landmark genomic scanning (Vi-RLGS).(More)
Plant hormone brassinosteroids (BRs) are a group of polyhydroxylated steroids that play critical roles in regulating broad aspects of plant growth and development. The structural diversity of BRs is generated by the action of several groups of P450s. Brassinazole is a specific inhibitor of C-22 hydroxylase (CYP90B1) in BR biosynthesis, and the application(More)
The chloroplast is a photosynthetic organelle in plant cells. The development and function of the chloro-plast are regulated by plant hormones, particularly cytokinin as a positive regulator and brassinosteroid as a negative regulator. We would like to clarify the molecular mechanism of chloroplast development regulated by the two phytohormones, and(More)
We screened steroid derivatives and found that spironolactone, an inhibitor of both 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD) and aldosterone receptor, is an inhibitor of phytohormone brassinosteroid (BR) action in plants. Under both dark and light growing conditions, spironolactone induced morphological changes in Arabidopsis, characteristic of(More)
The plant steroid hormone brassinosteroids (BRs) are important signal mediators that regulate broad aspects of plant growth and development. With the discovery of brassinoazole (Brz), the first specific inhibitor of BR biosynthesis, several triazole-type BR biosynthesis inhibitors have been developed. In this article, we report that fenarimol (FM), a(More)
Brassinosteroid (BR) is an important plant hormone that is perceived by the BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1) receptor. BRI1 is conserved among dicot and monocot species; however, the molecular mechanism underlying BR perception in monocots is not fully understood. We synthesised two BRs, iso-carbabrassinolide (iso-carbaBL) and 6-deoxoBL, which have(More)
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