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Plant steroid hormones, brassinosteroids (BRs), are perceived by a cell surface receptor kinase, BRI1, but how BR binding leads to regulation of gene expression in the nucleus is unknown. Here we describe the identification of BZR1 as a nuclear component of the BR signal transduction pathway. A dominant mutation bzr1-1D suppresses BR-deficient and(More)
Strigolactones (SLs) have recently been found to regulate shoot branching, but the functions of SLs at other stages of development and the regulation of SL-related gene expression are mostly unknown in Arabidopsis. In this study, we performed real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and microarray analysis using wild-type plants and(More)
We analyzed global gene expression in Arabidopsis in response to various hormones and in related experiments as part of the AtGenExpress project. The experimental agents included seven basic phytohormones (auxin, cytokinin, gibberellin, brassinosteroid, abscisic acid, jasmonate and ethylene) and their inhibitors. In addition, gene expression was(More)
Brassinazole is the only known specific brassinosteroid (BR)-biosynthesis inhibitor, and it has been shown to be useful for elucidating the function of BRs. In the course of a structure-activity relationship study of brassinazole, we found a more specific BR-biosynthesis inhibitor, Brz2001. This new inhibitor induced similar morphological changes to those(More)
Stomatal pores surrounded by a pair of guard cells in the plant epidermis control gas exchange for photosynthesis in response to light, CO(2), and phytohormone abscisic acid. Phototropins (phot1 and phot2) are plant blue-light receptor kinases and mediate stomatal opening via activation of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase. However, the signaling mechanism(More)
The L2/HNK-1 carbohydrate epitope has been shown to carry an unusual 3′-sulfoglucuronic acid linkedO-glycosidically through a neolactosyl-type back bone to a ceramide residue. Using monoclonal antibodies, the same or a closely related epitope has also been detectedN-glycosidically linked to glycoproteins, amongst them several neural cell adhesion molecules.(More)
Levels of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) were measured in marine fish, mussels, and shellfish. PBDDs were nondetectable in samples from freshwater environments, and their levels were successively higher in samples from the marine environments of the Bothnian Bay and Bothnian Sea, the West Coast of Sweden, and the Baltic Proper. In Baltic Proper(More)
Progesterone is a mammalian gonadal hormone. In the current study, we identified and quantified progesterone in a range of higher plants by using GC-MS and examined its effects on the vegetative growth of plants. The growth of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings was promoted by progesterone at low concentrations but suppressed at higher(More)
Several studies have shown that differences in lipid composition and in the lipid biosynthetic pathway affect the aluminium (Al) tolerance of plants, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these differences. Phospholipids create a negative charge at the surface of the plasma membrane and enhance Al sensitivity as a result of the(More)
A randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted to examine the effect of daily oral 1 mg minodronate on vertebral fractures in 704 postmenopausal women with established osteoporosis for 24 months. Minodronate treatment reduced vertebral fractures by 59% without serious adverse events. Minodronate is a safe and effective bisphosphonate for osteoporosis(More)