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The histidine-containing phosphotransfer (HPt) domain is a novel protein module with an active histidine residue that mediates phosphotransfer reactions in the two-component signaling systems. A multistep phosphorelay involving the HPt domain has been suggested for these signaling pathways. The crystal structure of the HPt domain of the anaerobic sensor(More)
Recent intensive studies have begun to shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the plant circadian clock in Arabidopsis thaliana. During the course of these previous studies, the most powerful technique, elegantly adopted, was a real-time bioluminescence monitoring system of circadian rhythms in intact plants carrying a luciferase (LUC) fusion(More)
Circadian clocks generate 24-h rhythms that are entrained by the day/night cycle. Clock circuits include several light inputs and interlocked feedback loops, with complex dynamics. Multiple biological components can contribute to each part of the circuit in higher organisms. Mechanistic models with morning, evening and central feedback loops have provided a(More)
The B motif is a signature of type-B response regulators (ARRs) involved in His-to-Asp phosphorelay signal transduction systems in Arabidopsis. Homologous motifs occur widely in the GARP family of plant transcription factors. To gain general insight into the structure and function of B motifs (or GARP motifs), we characterized the B motif derived from a(More)
In Escherichia coli, capsular colanic acid polysaccharide synthesis is regulated through the multistep RcsC-->YojN-->RcsB phosphorelay. By monitoring a hallmarked cps::lacZ reporter gene, we first searched for physiological stimuli that propagate the Rcs signaling system. The expression of cps::lacZ was activated when cells were grown at a low temperature(More)
Strains of Escherichia coli that express two different cytokinin receptors of Arabidopsis thaliana, CRE1/AHK4 and AHK3, were used to study the relative sensitivity of these receptors to various cytokinins. Both receptors were most sensitive to the bases of the isoprenoid-type cytokinins trans-zeatin and isopentenyladenine but differed significantly in the(More)
Plant circadian clock controls a wide variety of physiological and developmental events, which include the short-days (SDs)-specific promotion of the elongation of hypocotyls during de-etiolation and also the elongation of petioles during vegetative growth. In A. thaliana, the PIF4 gene encoding a phytochrome-interacting basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)(More)
In filamentous fungi, the His-Asp phosphorelay signaling system and HOG pathway are involved in the action of the fungicides, fludioxonil, and iprodione, as well as osmotic and oxidative stress responses. Aspergillusnidulans response regulators (RRs), SskA and SrrA, and histidine kinase (HK), NikA, are involved in the growth inhibitory effects of these(More)
The pseudo-response regulators (PRRs) are the circadian clock component proteins in the model dicot Arabidopsis thaliana. They contain a receiver-like domain (RLD) similar to the receiver domains of the RRs in the His-Asp phosphorelay system, but the RLDs lack the phosphoacceptor aspartic acid residue invariably conserved in the receiver domains. To study(More)