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Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by small CAG repeat expansion in the alpha1A calcium channel gene. We found that the human alpha1A calcium channel protein expressed in human embryonic kidney 293T cells produces a 75 kDa C-terminal fragment. This fragment is more toxic to cells than the full-length alpha1A calcium(More)
BACKGROUND Multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) occasionally have an extremely aggressive and debilitating disease course; however, its molecular basis is unknown. This study aimed to determine a relationship between connexin (Cx) pathology and disease aggressiveness in Asian patients with MS and NMO. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Samples(More)
Persistent Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a chronic inflammatory stimulus to hosts with an inverse correlation to atopic disorders. In this study, a total of 105 consecutive multiple sclerosis (MS) patients were divided into 52 opticospinal MS (OSMS) and 53 conventional MS (CMS), and their sera, along with those from 85 healthy controls (HC),(More)
The lung could be the target organ to cellular damage, since it is directly exposed to high concentrations of oxygen. Acute exercise and age would be an added challenge to the lung, and therefore, we investigated alterations of major lung antioxidant enzymes (manganese-superoxide dismutase, Mn-SOD; copper-zinc-SOD, Cu-Zn-SOD; glutathione peroxidase, GPX;(More)
There are two distinct subtypes of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Asians, optic-spinal (OSMS) and conventional (CMS). In OSMS, severe spinal cord lesions are characteristic while brain lesions are scant. We sought to clarify atypical brain lesions in OSMS by neuroimaging and pathological studies. For brain MRI, 124 consecutive Japanese patients with clinically(More)
Opticospinal multiple sclerosis (OSMS) in Asians has similar features to the relapsing-remitting form of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) seen in Westerners. OSMS is suggested to be NMO based on the frequent detection of specific IgG targeting aquaporin-4 (AQP4), designated NMO-IgG. The present study sought to clarify the significance of anti-AQP4 autoimmunity in(More)
Vascular permeability changes precede the development of demyelinating lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS), and vessel wall thickening and capillary proliferation are frequently seen in autopsied MS lesions. Although vascular growth factors are critical for inducing such vascular changes, their involvement in MS has not been extensively studied. Thus, we(More)
Non-visually induced smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM) were assessed in 8 healthy subjects. Targets were the subjects finger tip movements as somatosensory stimulus and a moving sound source as acoustic stimulus. Horizontal sinusoidal target movements were provided at an amplitude of 15 degrees and frequencies of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 Hz. In comparison with(More)
Selective aquaporin-4 (AQP4) loss and vasculocentric complement and immunoglobulin deposition are characteristic of neuromyelitis optica (NMO). We recently reported extensive AQP4 loss in demyelinated and myelinated layers of Baló's lesions without perivascular immunoglobulin and complement deposition. We aimed to reappraise AQP4 expression patterns in NMO(More)
Brain lesions are not uncommon in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients with anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody; however, the appearance of these lesions is said to be different from that of those in Western patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). To clarify the similarities and dissimilarities of brain lesions in anti-AQP4 antibody-positive and -negative MS and(More)