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The role of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades in integrating distinct upstream signals was studied in yeast. Mutants that were not able to activate PBS2 MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK; Pbs2p) at high osmolarity were characterized. Pbs2p was activated by two independent signals that emanated from distinct cell-surface osmosensors. Pbs2p was activated(More)
In the prokaryotic two-component signal transduction systems, recognition of an environmental stimulus by a sensor molecule results in the activation of its histidine kinase domain and phosphorylation of a histidine residue within that domain. This phosphate group is then transferred to an aspartate residue in the receiver domain of a cognate response(More)
Schizosaccharomyces pombe ste11 encodes a member of the family of HMG-box proteins. Its transcript is induced in response to nitrogen starvation and a concomitant decrease of the intracellular cAMP level. Expression of ste11 is essential for induction of sexual development, and its ectopic expression stimulates uncontrolled mating and sporulation. Ste11(More)
Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFA) has been visualized by direct peroxidase antiperoxidase (APA) immunohistochemistry in various vertebrates (cyclostomes, teleosts, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and several placental mammals). In this study GFA-immunoreactivity (GFA-I) was observed in all species examined except in cyclostomes and amphibians. Two types of(More)
NeuroD, a bHLH transcription factor, is implicated in differentiation of neurons and pancreatic beta cells. NeuroD-null mice die shortly after birth due to severe neonatal diabetes. To examine if there is postnatal neuronal phenotype in these mice, we rescued them from neonatal lethality by introducing a transgene encoding the mouse neuroD gene under the(More)
We have isolated Schizosaccharomyces pombe genes that confer sterility to the fission yeast cell when expressed from a multicopy plasmid. One of these genes strongly hybridized to a probe carrying the open reading frame of Saccharomyces cerevisiae TPK1, which encodes a catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A). This S. pombe(More)
The composite structure of the mammalian skull, which forms predominantly via intramembranous ossification, requires precise pre- and post-natal growth regulation of individual calvarial elements. Disturbances of this process frequently cause severe clinical manifestations in humans. Enhanced DNA binding by a mutant MSX2 homeodomain results in a gain of(More)
We have developed a robot called " Robovie " that has unique mechanisms designed for communication with humans. Robovie can generate human-like behaviors by using the human-like actuators and vision and audio sensors. In the development, the software is a key. We have obtained two important ideas in human-robot communication through research from the(More)
A sensitive method for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemistry has been developed which permits simultaneous observation of fine fiber processes and neuron cell bodies. In rat brain, distinctive configurations can be observed which have been difficult to see by other techniques. The staining procedure involves two steps. Tissue sections are incubated(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the recent results of liver resection in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. DESIGN Retrospective study. SETTING A university hospital in Japan. PATIENTS Two hundred eighty patients who underwent liver resection with complete extirpation of hepatocellular carcinoma from 1985 to 1993. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Morbidity and(More)