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The coordinated migration of neurons is a pivotal step for functional architectural formation of the mammalian brain. To elucidate its molecular mechanism, gene transfer by means of in utero electroporation was applied in the developing murine brain, revealing the crucial roles of Rac1, its activators, STEF/Tiam1, and its downstream molecule, c-Jun(More)
The molecular machinery governing glutamatergic-GABAergic neuronal subtype specification is unclear. Here we describe a cerebellar mutant, cerebelless, which lacks the entire cerebellar cortex in adults. The primary defect of the mutant brains was a specific inhibition of GABAergic neuron production from the cerebellar ventricular zone (VZ), resulting in(More)
Using the yeast two-hybrid system and an in vitro binding assay, we have identified a novel protein termed vinexin as a vinculin-binding protein. By Northern blotting, we identified two types of vinexin mRNA that were 3 and 2 kb in length. Screening for full-length cDNA clones and sequencing indicated that the two mRNA encode 82- and 37-kD polypeptides(More)
p27(kip1), a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor (CKI), generally suppresses CDK activity in proliferating cells. Although another role of p27 in cell migration has been recently suggested in vitro, the physiological importance of p27 in cell migration remains elusive, as p27-deficient mice have not shown any obvious migration-defect-related phenotypes.(More)
It has been suggested that matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3, stromelysin-1) has an important role in the degeneration of intervertebral discs (IVDs). A human MMP-3 promoter 5A/6A polymorphism was reported to be involved in the regulation of MMP-3 gene expression. We suggest that IVD degeneration is associated with 5A/6A polymorphism. We studied 54 young(More)
Although membrane trafficking pathways are involved in basic cellular functions, the evolutionally expanded number of their related family proteins suggests additional roles for membrane trafficking in higher organisms. Here, we show that several Rab-dependent trafficking pathways differentially participate in neuronal migration, an essential step for the(More)
Neuronal migration is a pivotal step for architectural and functional brain development. Migrating neurons exhibit various morphological changes, based on cytoskeletal organization. In addition to many genetic studies revealing the involvement of several cytoskeletal and signaling molecules in cortical neuronal migration (e.g. doublecortin, Lis1, Filamin A,(More)
In developing brains, neural progenitors exhibit cell cycle-dependent nuclear movement within the ventricular zone [interkinetic nuclear migration (INM)] and actively proliferate to produce daughter progenitors and/or neurons, whereas newly generated neurons exit from the cell cycle and begin pial surface-directed migration and maturation. Dysregulation of(More)
During cerebral cortical development, post-mitotic neurons exhibit a multi-step migration. The locomotion mode covers most of the neuronal migration path. Although for many decades, locomoting neurons have been known to migrate along radial glial fibers, how the cortical locomoting neurons attach to and migrate along radial glial fibers was largely unknown.(More)
Rho-family GTPases play key roles in regulating cytoskeletal reorganization, contributing to many aspects of nervous system development. Their activities are known to be regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), in response to various extracellular cues. P-Rex1, a GEF for Rac, has been mainly investigated in neutrophils, in which this(More)