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In Drosophila, the PIWI proteins, Aubergine (Aub), AGO3, and Piwi are expressed in germlines and function in silencing transposons by associating with PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). Recent studies show that PIWI proteins contain symmetric dimethyl-arginines (sDMAs) and that dPRMT5/Capsuleen/DART5 is the modifying enzyme. Here, we show that Tudor (Tud), one(More)
Faithful propagation of DNA methylation patterns during DNA replication is critical for maintaining cellular phenotypes of individual differentiated cells. Although it is well established that Uhrf1 (ubiquitin-like with PHD and ring finger domains 1; also known as Np95 and ICBP90) specifically binds to hemi-methylated DNA through its SRA (SET and RING(More)
The activation of innate immune responses by nucleic acids is crucial to protective and pathological immunities and is mediated by the transmembrane Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and cytosolic receptors. However, it remains unknown whether a mechanism exists that integrates these nucleic-acid-sensing systems. Here we show that high-mobility group box (HMGB)(More)
The NADPH oxidase activity of phagocytes and its generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is critical for host defense, but ROS overproduction can also lead to inflammation and tissue injury. Here we report that TRPM2, a nonselective and redox-sensitive cation channel, inhibited ROS production in phagocytic cells and prevented endotoxin-induced lung(More)
Several studies have shown that differences in lipid composition and in the lipid biosynthetic pathway affect the aluminium (Al) tolerance of plants, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these differences. Phospholipids create a negative charge at the surface of the plasma membrane and enhance Al sensitivity as a result of the(More)
In clinical and diagnostic proteomics, it is essential to develop a comprehensive and robust system for proteome analysis. Although multidimensional liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) systems have been recently developed as powerful tools especially for identification of protein complexes, these systems still some drawbacks in their(More)
ROBO1 is a receptor mediating Slit-induced repulsive action on axon guidance and differentially expressed in human cancers. Although ROBO1 ectodomain has been detected, the cleavage site had not been determined. In this study we identified the precise cleavage site of ROBO1. We also report multi-step proteolysis of ROBO1 by metalloproteinases and(More)
Mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) maintains the expression of cellular memory genes during development, while leukemic MLL fusion proteins aberrantly maintain expression of hematopoietic stem cell program genes such as HOXA9 to cause leukemia. However, the molecular mechanism of gene activation is unclear. Here we show that only two functional modules are(More)
Histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9) demethylase JMJD1A regulates β-adrenergic-induced systemic metabolism and body weight control. Here we show that JMJD1A is phosphorylated at S265 by protein kinase A (PKA), and this is pivotal to activate the β1-adrenergic receptor gene (Adrb1) and downstream targets including Ucp1 in brown adipocytes (BATs). Phosphorylation of(More)
A large family of myotubularin phosphatases dephosphorylates phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate, which are known to play important roles in vesicular trafficking and autophagy. The family is composed of 16 members, and understanding their regulatory mechanisms is important to understand their functions and related(More)