Learn More
We report a water-based optical clearing agent, SeeDB, which clears fixed brain samples in a few days without quenching many types of fluorescent dyes, including fluorescent proteins and lipophilic neuronal tracers. Our method maintained a constant sample volume during the clearing procedure, an important factor for keeping cellular morphology intact, and(More)
In mammals, odorant receptors (ORs) direct the axons of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) toward targets in the olfactory bulb. We show that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signals that regulate the expression of axon guidance molecules are essential for the OR-instructed axonal projection. Genetic manipulations of ORs, stimulatory G protein,(More)
The mammalian olfactory system mediates various responses, including aversive behaviours to spoiled foods and fear responses to predator odours. In the olfactory bulb, each glomerulus represents a single species of odorant receptor. Because a single odorant can interact with several different receptor species, the odour information received in the olfactory(More)
Sensory information detected by the peripheral nervous system is represented as a topographic map in the brain. It has long been thought that the topography of the map is determined by graded positional cues that are expressed by the target. Here, we analyzed the pre-target axon sorting for olfactory map formation in mice. In olfactory sensory neurons, an(More)
Sensory systems must map accurate representations of the external world in the brain. Although the physical senses of touch and vision build topographic representations of the spatial coordinates of the body and the field of view, the chemical sense of olfaction maps discontinuous features of chemical space, comprising an extremely large number of possible(More)
Development of a highly reproducible and sensitive single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) method would facilitate the understanding of the biological roles and underlying mechanisms of non-genetic cellular heterogeneity. In this study, we report a novel single-cell RNA-seq method called Quartz-Seq that has a simpler protocol and higher reproducibility and(More)
This article discusses the ontological treatment of diseases in the framework of the Ontology for General Medical Science (OGMS). We aim to provide a definition of a disease that is more friendly to clinicians and propose a corresponding model of diseases. We define a disease as a dependent continuant constituted of one or more causal chains of clinical(More)
In the mouse olfactory system, there are approximately 1000 types of odorant receptors (ORs), which perform multiple functions in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). In addition to detecting odors, the functional OR protein ensures the singular gene choice of the OR by negative-feedback regulation. ORs also direct the axonal projection of OSNs both globally(More)
Orthographic variance is a fundamental problem for many natural language processing applications. The Japanese language, in particular, contains many orthographic variants for two main reasons: (1) transliterated words allow many possible spelling variations , and (2) many characters in Japanese nouns can be omitted or substituted. Previous studies have(More)
Although researchers have shown increasing interest in extracting/classifying semantic relations, most previous studies have basically relied on lexical patterns between terms. This paper proposes a novel way to accomplish the task: a system that captures a physical size of an entity. Experimental results revealed that our proposed method is feasible and(More)