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Signaling through extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is important in multiple signal transduction networks in the CNS. However, the specific role of ERK2 in in vivo brain functions is not fully understood. Here we show that ERK2 play a critical role in regulating social behaviors as well as cognitive and emotional behaviors in mice. To study the(More)
BACKGROUND There is increasing evidence suggesting the existence of an interaction between commensal microbiota, the gut and the brain. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of commensal microbiota on the host behaviors in a contamination-free environment, which was verified by culture-based methods. METHODS Open-field and marble-burying(More)
The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1 and 2 are important signaling components implicated in learning and memory. These isoforms display a high degree of sequence homology and share a similar substrate profile. However, recent findings suggest that these isoforms may have distinct roles: whereas ERK1 seems to be not so important for associative(More)
Recently discovered genome-wide rare copy number variants (CNVs) have unprecedented levels of statistical association with many developmental neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disability and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, as CNVs often include multiple genes, causal genes(More)
Deletion or duplication of the human chromosome 22q11.2 is associated with many behavioral traits and neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. However, why phenotypes vary widely among individuals with identical deletions or duplications of 22q11.2 and which specific 22q11.2 genes contribute to these phenotypes are(More)
Duplication of human chromosome 22q11.2 is associated with elevated rates of mental retardation, autism and many other behavioral phenotypes. However, because duplications cover 1.5-6 Mb, the precise manner in which segments of 22q11.2 causally affect behavior is not known in humans. We have now determined the developmental impact of over-expression of an(More)
Although twin studies indicate clear genetic bases of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the precise mechanisms through which genetic variations causally result in ASD are poorly understood. Individuals with 3 Mb and nested 1.5 Mb hemizygosity of the chromosome 22q11.2 represent genetically identifiable cases of ASD. However, because more than 30 genes are(More)
We initially examined the effects of apomorphine in vitro using mouse embryonic and adult neural progenitor cells. The effects of apomorphine treatment led to dose-dependent increases in the number of embryonic and adult neural progenitor cells, and dopamine D2 receptor antagonist treatment significantly reduced the increases induced by apomorphine. Next,(More)
Social behavior dysfunction is a symptomatic element of schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although altered activities in numerous brain regions are associated with defective social cognition and perception, the causative relationship between these altered activities and social cognition and perception-and their genetic underpinnings-are not(More)
The radial migration is an important process in the development of the cerebral cortex. Earlier studies have reported that classical neurotransmitters such as L-dopamine and L-adrenaline regulate the proliferation of neural progenitor cells. We examined whether L-dopamine and L-adrenaline regulate cell migration, using embryonic neural progenitor cells from(More)