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Disappearance of TAR-DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43) from the nucleus contributes to the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but the nuclear function of TDP-43 is not yet fully understood. TDP-43 associates with nuclear bodies including Gemini of coiled bodies (GEMs). GEMs contribute to the biogenesis of uridine-rich small nuclear RNA(More)
A successful detection of the stealthy dopant-level circuit (trojan), proposed by Becker et al. at CHES 2013 (LNCS 8086:197–214, 2013), is reported. Contrary to an assumption made by Becker et al. dopant types in active region are visible with either scanning electron microscopy (SEM) or focused ion beam (FIB) imaging. The successful measurement is(More)
SUMMARY The photo-mask cost of standard-cell-based ASICs has been increased so prohibitively that low-volume production LSIs are difficult to fabricate due to high non-recurring engineering (NRE) cost including mask cost. Recently, user-programmable devices, such as FP-GAs are started to be used for low-volume consumer products. However , FPGAs cannot be(More)
Leaks inside semi-custom application-specific integrated circuit design primitives are rigorously investigated. The study is conducted by measuring a dedicated test element group chip with a small magnetic field probe on the chip surface. Measurement targets are standard cells and a memory macro cell. Leaks inside the primitives are focused, as many of(More)
The secret information, which is embedded in integrated circuit (IC) devices such as a smart card, has the risk of theft by reverse engineering (RE). The circuit design of IC can be stolen by the RE, and the counterfeit can be illegally fabricated. Therefore, the secure IC device requires the circuit architecture protected from the RE attacks. This paper(More)
In current countermeasure design trends against differential power analysis (DPA), security at gate level is required in addition to the security algorithm. Several dual-rail pre-charge logics (DPL) have been proposed to achieve this goal. Designs using ASIC can attain this goal owing to its backend design restrictions on placement and routing. However,(More)
Shoot phenology interacts with crown morphology to determine leaf production and duration over the growing season and throughout a tree's life span; and thus, this interaction has a major role in determining whole-tree photosynthesis and biomass yield. For several years, the pattern of shoot meristem activity determines Populus crown architecture, but after(More)