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To clarify the alterations of tau, amyloid beta protein (A beta) 1-40 and A beta1-42(43) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that accompany normal aging and the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), CSF samples of 93 AD patients, 32 longitudinal subjects among these 93 AD patients, 33 patients with non-AD dementia, 56 with other neurological diseases, and(More)
Germ cells possess the unique ability to acquire totipotency during development in vivo as well as give rise to pluripotent stem cells under the appropriate conditions in vitro. Recent studies in which somatic cells were experimentally converted into pluripotent stem cells revealed that genes expressed in primordial germ cells (PGCs), such as Oct3/4, Sox2,(More)
BACKGROUND We have started using laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) in urologic surgery, although its use has not gained momentum due to its level of difficulty. We here report our initial experience with transumbilical LESS for adrenal cortical adenoma by using a single port with a multichannel cannula (SILS port) and bent laparoscopic(More)
We measured plasma levels of amyloid beta protein (A beta) ending at positions 40 (A beta40) and 42(43) [A beta42(43)] in six carriers of beta APP717 (Val to Ile) mutation linked to familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) as well as in patients with sporadic AD (sAD) and controls. The percentage and the level of A beta42(43) were significantly higher in carriers(More)
Somatic cell reprogramming is achieved by four reprogramming transcription factors (RTFs), Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc. However, in addition to the induction of pluripotent cells, these RTFs also generate pseudo-pluripotent cells, which do not show Nanog promoter activity. Therefore, it should be possible to fine-tune the RTFs to produce only fully(More)
BACKGROUND Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a demyelinating syndrome characterized by myelitis and optic neuritis. Detection of anti-NMO immunoglobulin G antibody that binds to aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels allows the diagnosis of a limited form of NMO in the early stage with myelitis, but not optic neuritis. However, the detailed clinicopathologic(More)
Physiologically relevant steroid 5α-reductase (SRD5A) activity that is essential for dihydrotestosterone (DHT) biosynthesis in human castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) has not been fully characterized yet. In this study to ascertain the potential SRD5A activity, we cultured two human CRPC cell lines, C4-2 and C4-2AT6, with the steroid precursor:(More)
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma occurs in various sites, but rarely in the urinary tract. Imaging studies of a 69-year-old male revealed a left hydronephrosis and diffuse thickening of the renal pelvic and upper ureteral wall. Retrograde pyelography revealed a narrowing in this region, and brush cytology specimens contained atypical cells.(More)
Recently, S-1, a novel 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based agent containing the strong dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) inhibitor, 5-chloro-2,4-dihydropyrimidine (CDHP) has been clinically used to treat various non-urothelial carcinomas (UC). High levels of thymidylate synthase (TS), the target enzyme of 5-FU and DPD which degrades the majority of 5-FU, are(More)
BACKGROUND We investigated the changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and angiogenesis through angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 receptor (AT1R) after the development of acquired platinum resistance in bladder cancer. METHODS Four invasive human bladder cancer cell lines, T24, 5637, T24PR, and 5637PR, were used in vitro, whereas in vivo, T24 and T24PR(More)