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Dendritic cells (DCs) promote immune responses to foreign Ags and immune tolerance to self-Ags. Deregulation of DCs is implicated in autoimmunity, but the molecules that regulate DCs to protect against autoimmunity have remained unknown. In this study, we show that mice lacking the protein tyrosine phosphatase Shp1 specifically in DCs develop splenomegaly(More)
The life span of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) is short (3-5 days), and its regulation is thought to be important for homeostasis of the intestinal epithelium. We have now investigated the role of commensal bacteria in regulation of IEC turnover in the small intestine. The proliferative activity of IECs in intestinal crypts as well as the migration of(More)
The molecular basis for formation of lymphoid follicle and its homeostasis in the secondary lymphoid organs remains unclear. Signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα), an Ig superfamily protein that is predominantly expressed in dendritic cells or macrophages, mediates cell-cell signaling by interacting with CD47, another Ig superfamily protein. In this study, we(More)
Vascular endothelial-protein tyrosine phosphatase (VE-PTP) is a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase with a single catalytic domain in its cytoplasmic region and multiple fibronectin type III-like domains in its extracellular region. VE-PTP is expressed specifically in endothelial cells and is implicated in regulation of angiogenesis. The molecular(More)
Src family tyrosine kinases are essential for neural development, but their in vivo functions remain elusive because of functional compensation among family members. To elucidate the roles of individual Src family members in vivo, we generated transgenic mice expressing the neuronal form of c-Src (n-Src), Fyn, and their constitutively active forms in(More)
Shp2 (Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2) regulates neural cell differentiation. It is also expressed in postmitotic neurons, however, and mutations of Shp2 are associated with clinical syndromes characterized by mental retardation. Here we show that conditional-knockout (cKO) mice lacking Shp2 specifically in postmitotic(More)
Mononuclear phagocytes such as dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages in the lamina propria (LP) are thought to be important for both induction of inflammatory responses and maintenance of immunologic tolerance in the mammalian intestine. The molecular mechanisms by which these cells regulate intestinal immunity have remained poorly understood, however.(More)
The R3 subtype of receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) includes VE-PTP, DEP-1, PTPRO, and SAP-1. All of these enzymes share a similar structure, with a single catalytic domain and putative tyrosine phosphorylation sites in the cytoplasmic region and fibronectin type III-like domains in the extracellular region. The expression of each R3 RPTP(More)
Signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) is an immunoglobulin superfamily protein that is predominantly expressed in dendritic cells (DCs). Its cytoplasmic region binds SHP-1 or SHP-2 protein tyrosine phosphatases, while its extracellular region interacts with CD47, another immunoglobulin superfamily protein, constituting cell-cell signaling. SIRPα was(More)