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KamLAND has measured the flux of nu;(e)'s from distant nuclear reactors. We find fewer nu;(e) events than expected from standard assumptions about nu;(e) propagation at the 99.95% C.L. In a 162 ton.yr exposure the ratio of the observed inverse beta-decay events to the expected number without nu;(e) disappearance is 0.611+/-0.085(stat)+/-0.041(syst) for(More)
Repeated hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) exposure prior to ischemia has been reported to provide neuroprotection against ischemic brain injury. The present study examined the time course of neuroprotection of HBO (3.5 atmosphere absolute, 100% oxygen, 1 h for 5 consecutive days) and the changes of gene/protein expression in rats. First, at 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, and 72 h(More)
A membrane cytoskeletal protein, fodrin, is a substrate for a Ca2+-dependent protease, calpain. It remains unknown whether mu-calpain or m-calpain is involved in the proteolysis of either alpha- or beta-fodrin and in what subcellular localization during ischemia and reperfusion of the brain. To address these issues, we examined the distribution of fodrin(More)
UNLABELLED In the present study, we sought to elucidate the temporal profile of the reaction of microglia, astrocytes, and macrophages in the progression of delayed onset motor dysfunction after spinal cord ischemia (15 min) in rabbits. At 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h after reperfusion (9 animals in each), hind limb motor function was assessed, and the lumbar(More)
We previously reported in rats that preconditioning with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO; 100% O(2) 3.5-atomsphere absolute (ATA), 1 h/day for 5 days) provided neuroprotection against transient (8 min) forebrain ischemia possibly through protein synthesis relevant to neurotrophin receptor and inflammatory-immune system. A recent report suggested that HBO-induced(More)
Two types of ischemic tolerance in the brain, rapid and delayed, have been reported in terms of the interval between the conditioning and test insults. Although many reports showed that delayed-phase neuroprotection evoked by preconditioning is evident after 1 week or longer, there have been a few investigations about rapidly induced tolerance, and the(More)
UNLABELLED The mechanisms for delayed onset paraplegia after transient spinal cord ischemia are not fully understood. We investigated whether apoptotic motor neuron death is involved in its development. Spinal cord ischemia was induced for 15 min by occlusion of the abdominal aorta in rabbits. At 8, 24, or 48 h after reperfusion, hind limb motor function(More)
Intrathecal strychnine (glycine antagonist) or bicuculline (GABA(A) antagonist) yields a touch-evoked agitation that is blocked by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonism. We examined the effects of intrathecal strychnine and bicuculline on touch-evoked agitation and the spinal release of amino acids. Fifty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were prepared under(More)
UNLABELLED The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of intrathecal tetracaine (a sodium channel blocker) with those of moderate hypothermia on glutamate concentrations of intrathecal dialysate, hindlimb motor functions, and histopathology in spinal cord ischemia. New Zealand White rabbits implanted with an intrathecal dialysis probe were(More)
Inflammatory responses have been known to contribute to the development of neuronal damage after brain ischemia in experimental animals. Also, neutrophil elastase activity in the plasma has been elevated in the patients with acute cerebral infarction. In order to clarify whether neutrophil elastase distributes into the brain parenchyma and exacerbates(More)