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The human genome holds an extraordinary trove of information about human development, physiology, medicine and evolution. Here we report the results of an international collaboration to produce and make freely available a draft sequence of the human genome. We also present an initial analysis of the data, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned(More)
Cation-chloride cotransporters have been considered to play pivotal roles in controlling intracellular and extracellular ionic environments of neurons and hence controlling neuronal function. We investigated the total distributions of K-Cl cotransporter 1 (KCC1), KCC2 (KCC2), and Na-K-2Cl cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) messenger RNAs in the adult rat nervous(More)
The effects of age on the binding parameters of 11C-SCH23390, the highly selective ligand for central D1 dopamine receptors, at specific binding sites in the brain were studied. Seventeen healthy male volunteers (20-72 years old) participated. Regional radioactivity in the brain was followed for 40 min by positron emission tomography (PET). A high(More)
BACKGROUND Pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate into a variety of cells, including cardiomyocytes and vascular endothelial cells. However, little information is available about the therapeutic potency of MSC transplantation in cases of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), an important cause of heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS We investigated(More)
Human NT2-N neurons express Ca2+-permeable alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid glutamate receptors (AMPA-GluRs) and become vulnerable to excitotoxicity when AMPA-GluR desensitization is blocked with cyclothiazide. Although the initial increase in intracellular Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]i) was 1.9-fold greater in the presence than in the(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Adrenomedullin (AM) induces angiogenesis and inhibits cell apoptosis through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been shown to improve neurological deficits after stroke in rats. We investigated whether AM enhances the therapeutic potency of MSC transplantation. METHODS(More)
Benzodiazepine receptor occupancy in the brain following oral administration of clonazepam (CZP) with a dose of 30 micrograms/kg in six healthy young men and a further dose of 50 micrograms/kg in one of the subjects was estimated by carbon-11 labeled Ro15-1788 and positron emission tomography (PET). The effects of CZP on the latency of auditory(More)
The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between the number of tumour-infiltrating T lymphocytes and the clinicopathological features and clinical outcome in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Tissue specimens from 109 patients who underwent surgical resection for NSCLC were immunohistochemically analysed for CD4 and CD8(More)
Prior reports demonstrated that cells of the oligodendroglial lineage are susceptible to excitotoxic necrosis mediated by alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid glutamate receptors (AMPA-GluR), and also showed that these cells express the high affinity neurotrophin receptors, TrkC and TrkA. We now report that: a) oligodendroglial(More)
In order to examine the effect of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) on ischemic brain injury, NT-3 was topically applied to brain surface just after 90 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. NT-3 significantly reduced the infarct size at 24 h of reperfusion. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin in situ nick labeling (TUNEL)(More)