Takayuki Yoshida

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We report a type of synaptic modulation that involves retrograde signaling from postsynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) to presynaptic cannabinoid receptors. Activation of mGluR subtype 1 (mGluR1) expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) reduced neurotransmitter release from excitatory climbing fibers. This required activation of G(More)
Endocannabinoids work as retrograde messengers and contribute to short-term and long-term modulation of synaptic transmission via presynaptic cannabinoid receptors. It is generally accepted that the CB1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) mediates the effects of endocannabinoid in inhibitory synapses. For excitatory synapses, however, contributions of CB1, "CB3,"(More)
2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG) is an endocannabinoid that is released from postsynaptic neurons, acts retrogradely on presynaptic cannabinoid receptor CB1, and induces short- and long-term suppression of transmitter release. To understand the mechanisms of the 2-AG-mediated retrograde modulation, we investigated subcellular localization of a major 2-AG(More)
The cyanobacterium Nostoc commune is adapted to the terrestrial environment and has a cosmopolitan distribution. In this study, the role of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) in the desiccation tolerance of photosynthesis in N. commune was examined. Although photosynthetic O2 evolution was not detected in desiccated colonies, the ability of the cells to(More)
Action potential firing or depolarization of the postsynaptic neuron can induce a transient suppression of inhibitory synaptic inputs to the depolarized neuron in the cerebellum and hippocampus. This phenomenon, termed depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI), is initiated postsynaptically by an elevation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration(More)
Rab3A small G protein is a member of the Rab family and is most abundant in the brain, where it is localized on synaptic vesicles. Evidence is accumulating that Rab3A plays a key role in neurotransmitter release and synaptic plasticity. Rab3A cycles between the GDP-bound inactive and GTP-bound active forms, and this change in activity is associated with the(More)
2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is the endocannabinoid that mediates retrograde suppression of synaptic transmission in the brain. 2-AG is synthesized in activated postsynaptic neurons by sn-1-specific diacylglycerol lipase (DGL), binds to presynaptic cannabinoid CB(1) receptors, suppresses neurotransmitter release, and is degraded mainly by monoacylglycerol(More)
Nicotine, a major addictive component of tobacco, has been suggested to provoke impulsivity by activating central α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Although lesion studies have demonstrated the involvement of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in impulsive action, the precise brain sites responsible for nicotine-induced impulsive action have(More)
Impulsivity is a pathological symptom in several psychiatric disorders, underscoring the need for animal models of impulsive action to develop a brief screening method for novel therapeutic agents of impulsive action. The aims of this study were (i) to evaluate whether the three-choice serial reaction time task (3-CSRTT), a simple version of the five-choice(More)
INTRODUCTION Drug delivery systems (DDSs) are important for effective, safe, and convenient administration of drugs. pH- and ion-responsive polymers have been widely employed in DDS for site-specific drug release due to their abilities to exploit specific pH- or ion-gradients in the human body. AREAS COVERED Having pH-sensitivity, cationic polymers can(More)