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To elucidate the genetic mechanism of flowering in wheat, we performed expression, mutant and transgenic studies of flowering-time genes. A diurnal expression analysis revealed that a flowering activator VRN1, an APETALA1/FRUITFULL homolog in wheat, was expressed in a rhythmic manner in leaves under both long-day (LD) and short-day (SD) conditions. Under LD(More)
Despite extensive studies on the anterior-posterior (AP) axis formation of limb buds, mechanisms that specify digit identities along the AP axis remain obscure. Using the four-digit chick leg as a model, we report here that Tbx2 and Tbx3 specify the digit identities of digits IV and III, respectively. Misexpression of Tbx2 and Tbx3 induced posterior(More)
Half a century ago, thalidomide was widely prescribed to pregnant women as a sedative but was found to be teratogenic, causing multiple birth defects. Today, thalidomide is still used in the treatment of leprosy and multiple myeloma, although how it causes limb malformation and other developmental defects is unknown. Here, we identified cereblon (CRBN) as a(More)
PURPOSE Although the definitive risk factors for parastomal hernia development remain unclear, potential contributing factors have been reported from Western countries. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors for parastomal hernia in Japanese patients with permanent colostomies. METHODS All patients who received abdominoperineal resection(More)
The morphogenesis of snake embryos is an elusive yet fascinating research target for developmental biologists. However, few data exist on development of early snake embryo due to limited availability of pregnant snakes, and the need to harvest early stage embryos directly from pregnant snakes before oviposition without knowing the date of fertilization. We(More)
In a conventional adenovirus (Ad) vector production method using 293 cells, homologous recombination between Ad vector DNA and 293 cell-derived Ad E1 DNA occurs with low efficiency, resulting in the generation of replication-competent adenovirus (RCA). RCA can induce the spread of replication-incompetent Ad vectors, leading to unexpected tissue damage. In(More)
Hippocampal pyramidal neurons express various extrasynaptic glutamate receptors. When glutamate spillover was facilitated by blocking glutamate uptake and fast synaptic transmission was blocked by antagonists of AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors and an ionotropic GABA receptor blocker, repetitive synaptic stimulation evoked a persistent membrane(More)
In order to evaluate the diagnostic performance of cancer screening using whole-body (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scanning for asymptomatic subjects, we conducted a historical cohort study. The study group comprised 5807 individuals who underwent PET scanning from 2002 to 2003. Each subject had carried out a procedure with(More)
ODBMSs are used in advanced database applications to manage complex objects and objects that have associated inherent procedures. Some of the applications also require temporal and historical information management in the context of such object management. In this paper, we rst discuss a temporal persistent object model that treats past states of persistent(More)
INTRODUCTION Esophageal stents are commonly used to treat benign esophageal conditions including refractory benign esophageal strictures, anastomotic strictures, fistulae, perforations and anastomotic leaks. Data on outcomes in these settings remain limited. METHODS We performed a retrospective multicenter study of patients who underwent fully or(More)