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To elucidate the genetic mechanism of flowering in wheat, we performed expression, mutant and transgenic studies of flowering-time genes. A diurnal expression analysis revealed that a flowering activator VRN1, an APETALA1/FRUITFULL homolog in wheat, was expressed in a rhythmic manner in leaves under both long-day (LD) and short-day (SD) conditions. Under LD(More)
Half a century ago, thalidomide was widely prescribed to pregnant women as a sedative but was found to be teratogenic, causing multiple birth defects. Today, thalidomide is still used in the treatment of leprosy and multiple myeloma, although how it causes limb malformation and other developmental defects is unknown. Here, we identified cereblon (CRBN) as a(More)
Hippocampal pyramidal neurons express various extrasynaptic glutamate receptors. When glutamate spillover was facilitated by blocking glutamate uptake and fast synaptic transmission was blocked by antagonists of AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors and an ionotropic GABA receptor blocker, repetitive synaptic stimulation evoked a persistent membrane(More)
ODBMSs are used in advanced database applications to manage complex objects and objects that have associated inherent procedures. Some of the applications also require temporal and historical information management in the context of such object management. In this paper, we rst discuss a temporal persistent object model that treats past states of persistent(More)
Localised brain tissue damage activates surrounding astrocytes, which significantly influences subsequent long-term pathological processes. Most existing focal brain injury models in rodents employ craniotomy to localise mechanical insults. However, the craniotomy procedure itself induces gliosis. To investigate perilesional astrocyte activation under(More)
A fundamental issue in cortical processing of sensory information is whether top-down control circuits from higher brain areas to primary sensory areas not only modulate but actively engage in perception. Here, we report the identification of a neural circuit for top-down control in the mouse somatosensory system. The circuit consisted of a long-range(More)
Digit identity has been studied using the chick embryo as a model system for more than 40 years. Using this model system, several milestone findings have been reported, such as the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA), the Shh gene, and the theory of morphogen and positional information. These experimental results and models(More)
Method names are important for the software development process. It has been shown by some studies that the quality of method names affects software comprehension. In response, some approaches that evaluate comprehensibility of method names have been proposed. However, the effectiveness of existing approaches is limited because they focus on part of names.(More)
In this paper, a unique 3D shape measurement method for measurement of nearly plain car body parts is proposed. The main advantage of the system is the high accuracy (about 0.1 mm), the high flexibility and the real-time processing. The primary application of the method is the 100% inspection of press formed car parts in the factory since in these cases the(More)