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Adrenomedullin (AM) is a novel vasodilating peptide involved in the regulation of circulatory homeostasis and implicated in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. We tested the hypothesis that AM also possesses angiogenic properties. Using laser Doppler perfusion imaging, we found that AM stimulated recovery of blood flow to the affected limb in the(More)
Secreted papain-like Cys proteases are important players in plant immunity. We previously reported that the C14 protease of tomato is targeted by cystatin-like EPIC proteins that are secreted by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans (Pinf) during infection. C14 has been under diversifying selection in wild potato species coevolving with Pinf and(More)
BACKGROUND Macrophage scavenger receptors facilitate the uptake of modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL), formation of foam cells, and development of atherosclerosis. Given that proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, can modulate the macrophage foaming process, the aim of the present study was to determine whether the synthetic retinoic acid(More)
RD21-like proteases are ubiquitous, plant-specific papain-like proteases typified by carrying a C-terminal granulin domain. RD21-like proteases are involved in immunity and associated with senescence and various types of biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we interrogated Arabidopsis RD21 regulation and trafficking by site-directed mutagenesis,(More)
BACKGROUND Microinjection of clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9)-related RNA and DNA into fertilized eggs is a novel approach for creating gene-modified mice. Blastocysts obtained just before implantation may be appropriate for testing the fidelity of CRIPSR/Cas9-mediated genome editing(More)
Infection of plants by bacterial leaf pathogens at wound sites is common in nature. Plants defend wound sites to prevent pathogen invasion, but several pathogens can overcome spatial restriction and enter leaf tissues. The molecular mechanisms used by pathogens to suppress containment at wound infection sites are poorly understood. Here, we studied(More)
BACKGROUND CD44 is a major cellular receptor for hyaluronic acids. The stem structure of CD44 encoded by ten normal exons can be enlarged by ten variant exons (v1-v10) by alternative splicing. We have succeeded in preparing MV5 fully human IgM and its class-switched GV5 IgG monoclonal antibody (mAb) recognizing the extracellular domain of a CD44R1 isoform(More)
Electrophysiologic and tracer experiments have shown that Cl- enters Necturus proximal tubule cells from the tubule lumen by a process coupled to the flow of Na+, and that Cl- entry is electrically silent. The mechanism of Cl- exit from the cell across the basolateral membrane has not been directly studied. To evaluate the importance of the movement of Cl-(More)
The CRISPR/Cas9 system is capable of editing multiple genes through one-step zygote injection. The preexisting method is largely based on the co-injection of Cas9 DNA (or mRNA) and guide RNAs (gRNAs); however, it is unclear how many genes can be simultaneously edited by this method, and a reliable means to generate transgenic (Tg) animals with multiple gene(More)
Donor organ damage caused by cold preservation is a major problem affecting liver transplantation. Cold preservation most easily damages liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs), and information about the molecules modulating LSECs function can provide the basis for new therapeutic strategies. Adrenomedullin (AM) is a peptide known to possess(More)