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The interaction between the fungal pathogen Cladosporium fulvum and its host tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is an ideal model to study suppression of extracellular host defenses by pathogens. Secretion of protease inhibitor AVR2 by C. fulvum during infection suggests that tomato papain-like cysteine proteases (PLCPs) are part of the tomato defense response.(More)
In response to pathogen attack, plant cells secrete antimicrobial molecules at the site of infection. However, how plant pathogens interfere with defense-related focal secretion remains poorly known. Here we show that the host-translocated RXLR-type effector protein AVRblb2 of the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans focally accumulates(More)
Structural remodeling of the ventricular wall is a key determinant of clinical outcome in heart disease. Such remodeling involves the production and destruction of extracellular matrix proteins, cell proliferation and migration, and apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Cardiac fibroblasts are crucially involved in these processes, producing growth factors and(More)
We recently isolated a Krüppel-like zinc-finger transcription factor 5 (KLF5; also known as BTEB2 and IKLF), which is markedly induced in activated vascular smooth-muscle cells and fibroblasts. Here we describe our analysis of the in vivo function of KLF5 using heterozygous KLF5-knockout mice (Klf5(+/-)). In response to external stress, Klf5(+/-) mice(More)
Since the leaf apoplast is a primary habitat for many plant pathogens, apoplastic proteins are potent, ancient targets for apoplastic effectors secreted by plant pathogens. So far, however, only a few apoplastic effector targets have been identified and characterized. Here, we discovered that the papain-like cysteine protease C14 is a new common target of(More)
The calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR), a class B GPCR, forms a heterodimer with receptor activity-modifying protein 2 (RAMP2), and serves as the adrenomedullin (AM) receptor to control neovascularization, while CRLR and RAMP1 form the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor. Here, we report the crystal structures of the RAMP2 extracellular(More)
Adrenomedullin (AM) is a novel vasodilating peptide involved in the regulation of circulatory homeostasis and implicated in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. We tested the hypothesis that AM also possesses angiogenic properties. Using laser Doppler perfusion imaging, we found that AM stimulated recovery of blood flow to the affected limb in the(More)
The proteasome plays essential roles in nearly all biological processes in plant defense and development, yet simple methods for displaying proteasome activities in extracts and living tissues are not available to plant science. Here, we introduce an easy and robust method to simultaneously display the activities of all three catalytic proteasome subunits(More)
RD21-like proteases are ubiquitous, plant-specific papain-like proteases typified by carrying a C-terminal granulin domain. RD21-like proteases are involved in immunity and associated with senescence and various types of biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we interrogated Arabidopsis RD21 regulation and trafficking by site-directed mutagenesis,(More)
Adrenomedullin (AM) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) share common structural characteristics and receptors and belong to the same peptide family. Both peptides show a diverse set of biological effects including vasodilation. Recent establishment of gene-knockout mice has revealed the physiological importance of these two peptides. AM -/- mice(More)