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Innate immune signals mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been thought to contribute considerably to the antibody-enhancing effects of vaccine adjuvants. However, we report here that mice deficient in the critical signaling components for TLR mount robust antibody responses to T cell-dependent antigen given in four typical adjuvants: alum, Freund's(More)
A major goal of HIV-1 vaccine research is the design of immunogens capable of inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) that bind to the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env). Poor binding of Env to unmutated precursors of bnAbs, including those of the VRC01 class, appears to be a major problem for bnAb induction. We engineered an immunogen that binds to(More)
The E2A gene products, E12 and E47, are critical regulators of B cell development. However, it remains elusive whether E12 and E47 have overlapping and/or distinct functions during B lymphopoiesis. We have generated mice deficient for either E12 or E47 and examined their roles in B cell maturation. We show that E47 is essential for developmental progression(More)
Autoreactive B lymphocytes first encountering self-antigens in peripheral tissues are normally regulated by induction of anergy or apoptosis. According to the "two-signal" model, antigen recognition alone should render B cells tolerant unless T cell help or inflammatory signals such as lipopolysaccharide are provided. However, no such signals seem necessary(More)
617 B cells develop in the BM and fetal liver, generating antigen receptors with random combinations of heavy and light chains. As a consequence, many BCRs initially have affinity for self-tissues. Cells carrying autoreactive receptors are regulated by mechanisms including apoptosis, induction of anergy, or receptor editing. Receptor editing was first(More)
A proof-of-concept study evaluating the potential of Streptococcus pneumoniae Pneumococcal Surface Protein A (PspA) as a passive immunization target was conducted. We describe the generation and isolation of several broadly reactive mouse anti-PspA monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). MAb 140H1 displayed (i) 98% strain coverage, (ii) activity in complement(More)
The mechanisms by which B cells undergo tolerance, such as receptor editing, clonal deletion, and anergy, have been established in mice. However, corroborating these mechanisms in humans remains challenging. To study how autoreactive human B cells undergo tolerance, we developed a novel humanized mouse model. Mice expressing an anti-human Igκ membrane(More)
Vaccine development to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against HIV-1 is a global health priority. Potent VRC01-class bNAbs against the CD4 binding site of HIV gp120 have been isolated from HIV-1-infected individuals; however, such bNAbs have not been induced by vaccination. Wild-type gp120 proteins lack detectable affinity for predicted(More)
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