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Innate immune signals mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been thought to contribute considerably to the antibody-enhancing effects of vaccine adjuvants. However, we report here that mice deficient in the critical signaling components for TLR mount robust antibody responses to T cell-dependent antigen given in four typical adjuvants: alum, Freund's(More)
Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a life-threatening autoimmune blistering disease that is caused by IgG autoantibodies against the cadherin-type adhesion molecule desmoglein (Dsg)3. Previously, we have generated an active mouse model for PV by adoptive transfer of Dsg3(-/-) splenocytes. In this study, we isolated eight AK series, anti-Dsg3 IgG mAbs from the PV(More)
Challenge studies following passive immunization with neutralizing Abs suggest that an HIV vaccine could be efficacious were it able to elicit broadly neutralizing Abs (bNAbs). To better understand the requirements for activation of B cells producing bNAbs, we generated cell lines expressing bNAbs or their germline-reverted versions (gl-bNAbs) as BCRs. We(More)
A major goal of HIV-1 vaccine research is the design of immunogens capable of inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) that bind to the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env). Poor binding of Env to unmutated precursors of bnAbs, including those of the VRC01 class, appears to be a major problem for bnAb induction. We engineered an immunogen that binds to(More)
The E2A gene products, E12 and E47, are critical regulators of B cell development. However, it remains elusive whether E12 and E47 have overlapping and/or distinct functions during B lymphopoiesis. We have generated mice deficient for either E12 or E47 and examined their roles in B cell maturation. We show that E47 is essential for developmental progression(More)
Autoreactive B lymphocytes first encountering self-antigens in peripheral tissues are normally regulated by induction of anergy or apoptosis. According to the "two-signal" model, antigen recognition alone should render B cells tolerant unless T cell help or inflammatory signals such as lipopolysaccharide are provided. However, no such signals seem necessary(More)
The TNF-family cytokine BAFF (BLyS) promotes B lymphocyte survival and is overexpressed in individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren's Syndrome. BAFF can rescue anergic autoreactive B cells from death, but only when competition from nonautoreactive B cells is lacking. Yet, high BAFF levels promote autoantibody formation in individuals(More)
Transitional B cells turn over rapidly in vivo and are sensitive to apoptosis upon BCR ligation in vitro. However, little direct evidence addresses their tolerance sensitivity in vivo. A key marker used to distinguish these cells is IgD, which, through alternative RNA splicing of H chain transcripts, begins to be coexpressed with IgM at this stage. IgD is(More)
To analyze B lymphocyte central tolerance in a polyclonal immune system, mice were engineered to express a superantigen reactive to IgM of allotype b (IgM(b)). IgM(b/b) mice carrying superantigen were severely B cell lymphopenic, but small numbers of B cells matured. Their sera contained low levels of IgG and occasionally high levels of IgA. In bone marrow,(More)
617 B cells develop in the BM and fetal liver, generating antigen receptors with random combinations of heavy and light chains. As a consequence, many BCRs initially have affinity for self-tissues. Cells carrying autoreactive receptors are regulated by mechanisms including apoptosis, induction of anergy, or receptor editing. Receptor editing was first(More)