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To elucidate whether ischemia-reperfusion can cause delayed cell death in the cochlea, the effects of transient cochlear ischemia on hearing and on neuronal structures in the cochlea were studied in Mongolian gerbils. Ischemia was induced by bilaterally occluding the vertebral arteries for 5 minutes in gerbils, which lack posterior cerebral communicating(More)
Ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) proteins cross-link actin filaments to plasma membranes to integrate the function of cortical layers, especially microvilli. We found that in cochlear and vestibular sensory hair cells of adult wild-type mice, radixin was specifically enriched in stereocilia, specially developed giant microvilli, and that radixin-deficient(More)
Recent studies using explant cultures have demonstrated that pharmacological inhibition of Notch signaling by gamma-secretase inhibitors generates supernumerary hair cells in embryonic or neonatal cochleae. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of such pharmacological inhibition on mature auditory epithelia in vivo. Normal adult guinea pig(More)
This study examined the potential of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells for use as a source of transplants for the restoration of auditory spiral ganglion neurons. We monitored neurite outgrowth from iPS cell-derived neural progenitors toward cochlear hair cells ex vivo, and followed their survival and fates after transplantation into mouse cochleae in(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a role in the degeneration of auditory hair cells because of aging, noise trauma, or ototoxic drugs. Hydrogenation is a fundamental reduction/de-oxidation reaction in living organisms. This study thus examined the potential of hydrogen to protect auditory hair cells from ROS-induced damage. To generate ROS, we applied(More)
Recent studies have indicated that embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can be a source for the replacement of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), auditory primary neurons, and neurite projections from ESC-derived neurons to auditory sensory epithelia. However, the potential of ESC-derived neurons for synapse formation with auditory hair cells (HCs) has not been(More)
The post-natal cochlear mammalian epithelium have no capacity to proliferate in tissue, however, dissociated supporting cells exhibit the ability to divide and trans-differentiate into new hair cells in vitro, with this process found to be correlated with the downregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(kip1). Here we show that knockdown of(More)
Previous studies on regeneration of mammalian vestibular hair cells have indicated the potential for self-repair of damaged hair cells. The rescue of damaged hair cells from cell death may therefore increase regenerated hair cells in affected vestibular epithelia. The role of apoptosis in the degradation of vestibular hair cells following aminoglycoside(More)
In the auditory system, efforts to reduce degeneration of spiral ganglion neurons have the immediate objective of improving clinical benefits of cochlear implants, which are small devices designed to stimulate spiral ganglion neurons electronically. Recent studies have indicated several neurotrophins can enhance survival of spiral ganglion neurons. However,(More)
Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is mainly caused by cochlear hair cell damage. Because cochlear hair cells and supporting cells lose their ability to proliferate in postnatal mammals, SNHL was thought to be an intractable disease. The maintenance of hair cell and supporting cell numbers after cochlear injury is therefore important for the treatment of(More)