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The purpose of this study was to determine whether immobilization stress can cause changes in the enzyme activity and gene expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the hypothalamus, pituitary, and adrenal gland in rats. NOS enzyme activity was measured as the rate of [3H]arginine conversion to citrulline, and the level of nNOS mRNA signal was(More)
Effects of cutaneous stimulation on plasma corticosterone were examined in adult male Wistar rats anesthetized with pentobarbital. Under the resting condition, plasma corticosterone measured every 15 min between 1430 and 1630 h revealed no significant circadian fluctuations. Nociceptive mechanical stimulation of bilateral hindpaws by pinching for 10 min(More)
One of the major obstacles in investigating in vivo proteolytic phenomena has been the inaccessibility to spatial information as to where in the tissue the reaction proceeds because the orthodox method employing electrophoretic analysis requires homogenization of samples and thus results in loss of such spatial information. To overcome this technical(More)
The effects of various thermal stimulations of restricted skin areas with a thermal probe on the adrenal sympathetic efferent nerve activity and catecholamine (CA) secretion rates from the adrenal medulla were studied in alpha-chloralose-urethane anesthetized rats. Both cold and warm stimulations of abdominal skin either below 10 degrees C or above 43(More)
Changes of three different cytosolic Ca2+ binding proteins, calbindin-D28k, calretinin, and parvalbumin mRNA expression in the brain of the hamster during aging were investigated by in situ hybridization using brains from hamsters aged 4, 9, 13, 19, to 24 months old. In cerebellum area, calbindin-D28k transcripts showed about 50% to 68% decrease in content(More)
The major component of Alzheimer's disease amyloid is a small polypeptide referred as the amyloid beta protein, which is derived from a larger precursor, amyloid precursor protein (APP). Cell fractionation and immunological studies on the APP molecule indicate that APP is localized either in the neuron and astrocyte and that the molecule is recovered from(More)
The effect on the pentobarbital sleep time by olfactory stimulation with various odorants was investigated using mice to appraise the physiological or psychological significance of olfactory information. The sleep time was determined as the time elapsed between intraperitoneal pentobarbital administration and the first time that the animal was able to(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent cause of dementia, although no genetic abnormality has been identified. Recent studies have elucidated the molecular defect in AD, including the abnormal deposition of amyloid beta peptide (beta/A4) in senile plaques of affected individuals. Normal brain contains the enzyme, APP secretase, which cleaves inside(More)
BACKGROUND There have been a few previous reports on attempted double-balloon endoscopy (DBE)-assisted endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in patients with Roux-en-Y anastomosis and an intact papilla. This study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of DBE-assisted ERCP in patients with Roux-en-Y anastomosis and an intact papilla of(More)
The effect of mechanical and thermal stimulations to the forehead or cheek innervated by the trigeminal nerve on adrenal sympathetic efferent nerve activity was studied in alpha-chloralose-urethane anesthetized rats. Innoxious mechanical stimulations to the forehead or cheek caused a reflex decrease of nerve activity, while noxious mechanical stimulations(More)