Takayoshi Kobayashi

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Little is known about the structure and function of membrane domains in the vacuolar apparatus of animal cells. A unique feature of late endosomes, which are part of the pathway that leads to lysosomes, is that they contain a complex system of poorly characterized internal membranes in their lumen. These endosomes are therefore known as multivesicular or(More)
A single-beam gradient-force optical trap for dielectric particles, which relies solely on the radiation pressure force of a TEM(00)-mode laser light, is demonstrated in air for what is believed to be the first time. It was observed that micrometer-sized glass spheres with a refractive index of n=1.45 remained trapped in the focus region for more than 30(More)
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), together with sphingosine 1-phosphate, is a bioactive lipid mediator that acts on G-protein-coupled receptors to evoke multiple cellular responses, including Ca(2+) mobilization, modulation of adenylyl cyclase, and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation. In this study, we isolated a human cDNA encoding a novel(More)
OBJECTIVE We developed a digital image database (www.macnet.or.jp/jsrt2/cdrom_nodules.html ) of 247 chest radiographs with and without a lung nodule. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of image databases for potential use in various digital image research projects. Radiologists' detection of solitary pulmonary nodules included in(More)
The floral morphology of grass species is distinct from that of typical dicot plants. In order to achieve a better understanding of the molecular basis for this diversion, we isolated RAP1A, RAP1B and RAG, putative rice orthologs for the Arabidopsis class A gene APETALA1 (AP1) and class C gene AGAMOUS (AG). The expression patterns of RAP1A, RAG and OsMADS2,(More)
Bisphenol A, an environmental oestrogenic chemical, was found to conjugate highly with glucuronic acid in male rat liver microsomes studied in vitro. In the various isoforms tested (1A1, 1A3, 1A5, 1A6, 1A7 and 2B1), glucuronidation of bisphenol A and of diethylstilboestrol, a synthetic crystalline compound possessing oestrogenic activity and known to be(More)
A hyperthermophilic archaeon, Thermococcus profundus DT5432, produced extracellular thermostable amylases. One of the amylases (amylase S) was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE-Toyopearl chromatography, and gel filtration on Superdex 200HR. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 42,000 by sodium dodecyl(More)
Allergic asthma is caused by the aberrant expansion in the lung of T helper cells that produce type 2 (TH2) cytokines and is characterized by infiltration of eosinophils and bronchial hyperreactivity. This disease is often triggered by mast cells activated by immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic challenge. Activated mast cells release various chemical(More)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae carries approximately 150 copies of rDNA in tandem repeats. It was found that the absence of an essential subunit of RNA polymerase I (Pol I) in rpa135 deletion mutants triggers a gradual decrease in rDNA repeat number to about one-half the normal level. Reintroduction of the missing RPA135 gene induced a gradual increase in repeat(More)
Breakdown or absence of vascular oxygen delivery is a hallmark of many common human diseases, including cancer, myocardial infarction, and stroke. The chief mediator of hypoxic response in mammalian tissues is the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), and its oxygen-sensitive component HIF-1alpha. A key question surrounding HIF-1alpha and(More)