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An increased glycolytic flux accompanied by activation of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is implicated in chemoresistance of cancer cells. In this study, we found that CD44, a cell surface marker for cancer stem cells, interacts with pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) and thereby enhances the glycolytic phenotype of cancer cells that are either deficient in p53(More)
PURPOSE PIK3CA encodes the catalytic subunit of PI3K, p110α. Mutant PIK3CA stimulates the AKT pathway and promotes cancer cell proliferation. PIK3CA mutations have been associated with poor prognosis in patients with colorectal or lung cancer. In contrast, the relationship between PIK3CA mutations and favorable prognoses has been shown in breast cancer.(More)
Although the existence of tumor-initiating cells (T-ICs) in several types of human cancer has been documented, the contribution of somatic stem cells to the development of T-ICs has remained unclear. Here, we show that normal mouse ovary contains epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)-expressing stem-like cells that possess the ability to differentiate(More)
The targeting of antioxidant systems that allow stem-like cancer cells to avoid the adverse consequences of oxidative stress might be expected to improve the efficacy of cancer treatment. Here, we show that head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells that express variant isoforms of CD44 (CD44v) rely on the activity of the cystine transporter(More)
BACKGROUND Genome-wide DNA hypomethylation plays an important role in genomic instability and carcinogenesis. DNA methylation in the long interspersed nucleotide element-1, L1 (LINE-1) repetitive element is a good indicator of the global DNA methylation level. In some types of human neoplasms, LINE-1 methylation level is attracting interest as a predictive(More)
The prognosis for individuals diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains poor because of the high frequency of invasive tumor growth, intrahepatic spread, and extrahepatic metastasis. Here, we investigated the role of the standard isoform of CD44 (CD44s), a major adhesion molecule of the extracellular matrix and a cancer stem cell marker, in the(More)
Running title: The role of CD44 in the TGF-ȕ-mediated mesenchymal phenotype Author manuscripts have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication but have not yet been edited. Abstract The prognosis for individuals diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains poor due to the high frequency of invasive tumor growth, intrahepatic spread, and(More)
CD44 is frequently overexpressed in a wide variety of epithelial malignancies including gastrointestinal cancer and causes resistance to currently available treatments. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that regulate molecular pathways in cancer by targeting various genes. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulation of CD44 expression by(More)
Bmi1 is overexpressed in a variety of human cancers including gastrointestinal cancer. The high expression level of Bmi1 protein is associated with poor prognosis of gastrointestinal cancer patients. On the other hand, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) contribute to tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis by producing various mediators in the tumor(More)
Mammalian DNA is epigenetically marked by 5'-cytosine methylation (5-methylcytosine [5-mC]). The Ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes (TET1, TET2, and TET3) are implicated in DNA demethylation, through dioxygenase activity that converts 5-mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC). Although decreased TET is reportedly associated with decreased 5-hmC levels in(More)