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Definition of cellular responses to cytokines often involves cross-communication through their respective receptors. Here, signaling by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) is shown to depend on the IFN-alpha/beta receptor components. Although these IFNs transmit signals through distinct receptor complexes, the IFN-alpha/beta receptor component, IFNAR1, facilitates(More)
  • H Takayanagi, K Ogasawara, S Hida, T Chiba, S Murata, K Sato +6 others
  • 2000
Bone resorption is regulated by the immune system, where T-cell expression of RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB ligand), a member of the tumour-necrosis factor family that is essential for osteoclastogenesis, may contribute to pathological conditions, such as autoimmune arthritis. However, whether activated T cells maintain bone(More)
Olfactory receptor neurons are unique in their anatomical structure and function. Each neuron is directly exposed to the external environment at the site of its dendritic nerve terminals where it is exposed to macromolecules. These molecules can be incorporated into by olfactory receptor neurons and transported transsynaptically to the central nervous(More)
BACKGROUND Recently it has been reported that, toll-like receptors (TLRs) are expressed on a series of tumor cells, such as colon cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, melanoma and lung cancer. Although some cancer cells like melanoma cells are known to respond to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) via TLR4, not all cancer cells are positive for TLR4. There is(More)
Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) were infected upon intranasal inoculation with the R404BP strain of neurovirulent influenza A virus. Virus-infected neurons and a small fraction of neighbouring uninfected neurons displayed apoptotic neurodegeneration substantiated by the immunohistochemistry for activated caspase-3 molecules and the terminal(More)
Microglial response in the trigeminal ganglion of mice corneally inoculated with herpes simplex virus (HSV) was investigated. Virus-infected neurons of the trigeminal ganglion did not exhibit apoptotic signal, while those of the trigeminal sensory brainstem nucleus did. Cells expressing ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1), a specific marker of(More)
The goal of this study was to identify the differences of intracellular signals between the processes of thymic positive and negative selection. The activation of calcineurin, a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent phosphatase, is known to be an essential event in T cell activation via the T cell receptor (TCR). The effect of FK506, an inhibitor of calcineurin(More)
We have investigated the potential of neurotropic microbes to invade the central nervous system (CNS) via the peripheral nervous system. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) strain KH6 and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) strain 186 were found to infect chemosensory neurons in the vomeronasal organ (the pheromone detector) following intranasal inoculation(More)
gamma-Interferon (IFN-gamma) is known to induce expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens on murine astrocytes and MHC class I antigens on murine oligodendrocytes. We studied whether the human IFN-gamma could induce the expression of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-A, B, C and -DR antigens on cultured human glia from autopsied(More)
The temporal and spatial distribution of active c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in the brain was investigated in an experimental virus-mouse system in which neurovirulent influenza A virus caused lethal acute encephalitis. Following stereotaxic microinjection into the olfactory bulb, virus-infected neurons(More)