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Olfactory receptor neurons are unique in their anatomical structure and function. Each neuron is directly exposed to the external environment at the site of its dendritic nerve terminals where it is exposed to macromolecules. These molecules can be incorporated into by olfactory receptor neurons and transported transsynaptically to the central nervous(More)
BACKGROUND Recently it has been reported that, toll-like receptors (TLRs) are expressed on a series of tumor cells, such as colon cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, melanoma and lung cancer. Although some cancer cells like melanoma cells are known to respond to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) via TLR4, not all cancer cells are positive for TLR4. There is(More)
Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) were infected upon intranasal inoculation with the R404BP strain of neurovirulent influenza A virus. Virus-infected neurons and a small fraction of neighbouring uninfected neurons displayed apoptotic neurodegeneration substantiated by the immunohistochemistry for activated caspase-3 molecules and the terminal(More)
Human plasmacytoid or CD4(+)CD11c(-) type 2 dendritic cell precursors (PDC) were identified as natural type I interferon (IFN)-producing cells in response to viral and bacterial infection. They represent effector cells of innate immunity and link it to the distinct adaptive immunity by differentiating into mature DC. It has been reported that(More)
The goal of this study was to identify the differences of intracellular signals between the processes of thymic positive and negative selection. The activation of calcineurin, a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent phosphatase, is known to be an essential event in T cell activation via the T cell receptor (TCR). The effect of FK506, an inhibitor of calcineurin(More)
Microglial response in the trigeminal ganglion of mice corneally inoculated with herpes simplex virus (HSV) was investigated. Virus-infected neurons of the trigeminal ganglion did not exhibit apoptotic signal, while those of the trigeminal sensory brainstem nucleus did. Cells expressing ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1), a specific marker of(More)
We have investigated the potential of neurotropic microbes to invade the central nervous system (CNS) via the peripheral nervous system. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) strain KH6 and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) strain 186 were found to infect chemosensory neurons in the vomeronasal organ (the pheromone detector) following intranasal inoculation(More)
Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) is an autosomal dominant skeletal disorder with wide variation in clinical phenotype and is caused by heterogeneous germline mutations in two of the Ext genes, EXT-1 and EXT-2, which encode ubiquitously expressed glycosyltransferases involved in the polymerization of heparan sulfate (HS) chains. To examine whether the Ext(More)
The temporal and spatial distribution of active c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in the brain was investigated in an experimental virus-mouse system in which neurovirulent influenza A virus caused lethal acute encephalitis. Following stereotaxic microinjection into the olfactory bulb, virus-infected neurons(More)