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Bone resorption is regulated by the immune system, where T-cell expression of RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB ligand), a member of the tumour-necrosis factor family that is essential for osteoclastogenesis, may contribute to pathological conditions, such as autoimmune arthritis. However, whether activated T cells maintain bone(More)
Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is one of the most potent drugs in cancer chemotherapy, and is highly effective in treating both newly diagnosed and relapse patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Despite a number of reports regarding the molecular mechanisms by which ATO promotes anti-tumor or pro-apoptotic activity in hematological and other solid(More)
BACKGROUND Recently it has been reported that, toll-like receptors (TLRs) are expressed on a series of tumor cells, such as colon cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, melanoma and lung cancer. Although some cancer cells like melanoma cells are known to respond to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) via TLR4, not all cancer cells are positive for TLR4. There is(More)
Definition of cellular responses to cytokines often involves cross-communication through their respective receptors. Here, signaling by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) is shown to depend on the IFN-alpha/beta receptor components. Although these IFNs transmit signals through distinct receptor complexes, the IFN-alpha/beta receptor component, IFNAR1, facilitates(More)
The balanced action of cytokines is known to be critical for the maintenance of homeostatic immune responses. Here, we report the development of an inflammatory skin disease involving CD8(+) T cells, in mice lacking the transcription factor, interferon regulatory factor-2 (IRF-2). CD8(+) T cells exhibit in vitro hyper-responsiveness to antigen stimulation,(More)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) enhances the production of nitric oxide (NO) in interferon (IFN)-gamma-stimulated vascular endothelial cells. We studied the mechanism by which LPS enhances IFN-gamma-induced NO production by using the murine vascular endothelial cell line, END-D. LPS enhanced IFN-gamma-induced NO production via augmented expression of inducible(More)
BACKGROUND The current study was undertaken to investigate the effects of pretreatment with isoflurane and sevoflurane on the development of neurogenic pulmonary edema in an animal model. METHODS Rats were exposed to room air (control), 1.5% isoflurane, or 2.5% sevoflurane for 4 h. They were then anesthetized with intraperitoneal injections of(More)
Olfactory receptor neurons are unique in their anatomical structure and function. Each neuron is directly exposed to the external environment at the site of its dendritic nerve terminals where it is exposed to macromolecules. These molecules can be incorporated into by olfactory receptor neurons and transported transsynaptically to the central nervous(More)
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has been proposed as an environmental risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer's disease, although this issue is still in dispute. The involvement of HSV-1 in the pathogenesis of familial Alzheimer's disease, the uncommon type of Alzheimer's disease, has not been addressed yet. We investigated formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded,(More)
BACKGROUND Efficient production of interferons (IFNs) in virally infected cells is an essential aspect of the host defence. The transcription factor complex ISGF3 (IFN-stimulated gene factor 3) was originally identified as a critical mediator of the IFN signal; it is formed upon IFN receptor (IFNR) stimulation and binds to ISREs (IFN-stimulated response(More)