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Pacific herring show an abrupt genetic discontinuity in the central North Pacific that represents secondary contact between refuge populations previously isolated during Pleistocene glaciations. Paradoxically, high levels of gene flow produce genetic homogeneity among ocean-type populations within each group. Here, we surveyed variability in mtDNA(More)
To assess the role of historical process and contemporary factors in shaping population structures in Northwestern Pacific, mitochondrial control region sequences were analyzed to characterize the phylogeography and population structure of the Japanese sand lance Ammodytes personatus. A total of 429 individuals sampled from 17 populations through the(More)
To investigate the genetic diversity and describe the population structure in Gadus macrocephalus, a 452 base pair (bp) fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region was analysed in 259 individuals. The results showed remarkably low nucleotide diversity and a lack of genealogical structure. Small but significant genetic differentiations, however, were(More)
A previous analysis of Pacific herring mitochondrial (mt) DNA with Bayesian skyline plots (BSPs) was interpreted to reflect population growth in the late Pleistocene that was preceded by population stability over several hundred thousand years. Here we use an independent set of mtDNA control region (CR) sequences and simulations to test these hypotheses.(More)
The skin mucus of the great sculpin Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus showed both antibacterial and L-amino acid oxidase (LAO) activities. Antibacterial LAOs were purified from the skin mucus of the M. polyacanthocephalus by column chromatography and named MPLAO1, MPLAO2, and MPLAO3, based on the order of elution by ion-exchange high performance liquid(More)
The hockey stick regression method is a convenient method to estimate safe doses, which is a kind of regression method using segmented lines. The method seems intuitively to be useful, but needs the assumption of the existence of the positive threshold value. The validity of the assumption is considered to be difficult to be shown. The alternative methods(More)
The beta-binomial model is widely used for analyzing teratological data involving littermates. Recent developments in statistical analyses of teratological data are briefly reviewed with emphasis on the model. For statistical inference of the parameters in the beta-binomial distribution, separation of the likelihood introduces an likelihood inference. This(More)
A recent successful development is found in a series of innovative, new statistical methods for smoothing data that are based on the empirical Bayes method. This paper emphasizes their practical usefulness in medical sciences and their theoretically close relationship with the problem of simultaneous estimation of parameters, depending on strata. The paper(More)
Larval dispersal may have an important effect on genetic structure of benthic fishes. To examine the population genetic structure of spottedtail goby Synechogobius ommaturus, a 478 base pair (bp) fragment of the hypervariable portion of the mtDNA control region was sequenced and used to interpret life-history characteristics and larval dispersal strategy.(More)