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The repeated failures reported in cultivating some microbial lineages are a major challenge in microbial ecology and probably linked, in the case of Frankia microsymbionts to atypical patterns of auxotrophy. Comparative genomics of the so far uncultured cluster-2 Candidatus Frankia datiscae Dg1, with cultivated Frankiae has revealed genome reduction, but no(More)
AIMS Quantitative analysis of rest-stress myocardial perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide assessments of regional myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR). The purpose of this study was to compare regional MPR determined by myocardial perfusion MRI with coronary flow reserve (CFR) by intracoronary Doppler flow wire. METHODS AND RESULTS Twenty(More)
In 2010, the World Organisation for Animal Health recommended the inclusion of a Florida sublineage clade2 strain of equine influenza virus (H3N8), which is represented by A/equine/Richmond/1/07 (Richmond07), in equine influenza vaccines. Here, we evaluate the antigenic differences between Japanese vaccine strains and Richmond07 by performing(More)
Although many disinfectants are commercially available in the veterinary field, information on the virucidal effects of disinfectants against equine group A rotavirus (RVA) is limited. We evaluated the performance of commercially available disinfectants against equine RVA. Chlorine- and iodine-based disinfectants showed virucidal effects, but these were(More)
Recently, outbreaks associated with equine coronavirus (ECoV) have occurred in Japan and the United States. While ECoV is likely to be pathogenic to horses, it has not been shown that experimental inoculation of horses with ECoV produces clinical signs of disease. In this study, we inoculated three Japanese draft horses with an ECoV-positive diarrheic fecal(More)
BACKGROUND Equine H3N8 influenza A viruses (EIVs) cause respiratory disease in horses and circulate among horses worldwide. In 2004, an outbreak of canine H3N8 influenza A virus (CIV) occurred among dogs in Florida and has spread among dogs in the United States (US). Genetic analyses revealed that this CIV is closely related to the recent EIVs. Although(More)
BACKGROUND Both the G3P[12] and the G14P[12] type of equine group A rotavirus (RVA) have recently become predominant in many countries, including Japan. G3 types are classified further into G3A and G3B. The G3A viruses have been circulating in Europe, Australia, and Argentina, and the G3B viruses have been circulating in Japan. However, only an inactivated(More)
To develop a live vaccine for equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1), two EHV-1 mutants containing no heterogeneous DNA, DeltagI and DeltagE, were constructed with deletions in the open reading frame of either glycoprotein I (gI) or E (gE), respectively. In equine cell culture, deletion mutants formed smaller plaques than the parental and revertant viruses, but(More)
We previously reported that horse antiserum against the Japanese equine influenza vaccine virus, A/equine/La Plata/1993 (LP93) exhibited reduced cross-neutralization against some Florida sublineage Clade (Fc) 2 viruses, for example, A/equine/Carlow/2011 (CL11). As a result, Japanese vaccine manufacturers will replace LP93 with A/equine/Yokohama/aq13/2010(More)