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The phytohormone auxin plays critical roles in the regulation of plant growth and development. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) has been recognized as the major auxin for more than 70 y. Although several pathways have been proposed, how auxin is synthesized in plants is still unclear. Previous genetic and enzymatic studies demonstrated that both TRYPTOPHAN(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by NADPH oxidase play critical roles in various cellular activities, including plant innate immunity response. In contrast with the large multiprotein NADPH oxidase complex of phagocytes, in plants, only the homologs of the catalytic subunit gp91phox and the cytosolic regulator small GTPase Rac are found. Plant(More)
Salicylic acid (SA) is a primary factor responsible for exerting diverse immune responses in plants and is synthesized in response to attack by a wide range of pathogens. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) sid2 mutant is defective in a SA biosynthetic pathway involving ISOCHORISMATE SYNTHASE1 (ICS1) and consequently contains reduced levels of SA.(More)
Trienoic fatty acids (TAs) are the major polyunsaturated fatty acid species in the membrane lipids in plant cells. TAs are crucial for the adaptation to abiotic stresses, especially low- or high-temperature stress. We show that TAs in chloroplast membrane lipids are involved in defense responses against avirulent bacterial pathogens. Avirulent pathogen(More)
Plants control CO2 uptake and water loss by modulating the aperture of stomata located in the epidermis. Stomatal opening is initiated by the activation of H(+)-ATPases in the guard-cell plasma membrane. In contrast to regulation of H(+)-ATPase activity, little is known about the translocation of the guard cell H(+)-ATPase to the plasma membrane. Here we(More)
Heme activator protein (HAP), also known as nuclear factor Y or CCAAT binding factor (HAP/NF-Y/CBF), has important functions in regulating plant growth, development and stress responses. The expression of rice HAP gene (OsHAP2E) was induced by probenazole (PBZ), a chemical inducer of disease resistance. To characterize the gene, the chimeric gene(More)
The Arabidopsis FAD7 gene encodes a plastid omega-3 fatty acid desaturase that catalyzes the desaturation of dienoic fatty acids to trienoic fatty acids in chloroplast membrane lipids. The expression of FAD7 was rapidly and locally induced by ozone exposure, which causes oxidative responses equivalent to pathogen-induced hypersensitive responses and(More)
The oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans causes potato late blight, one of the most economically damaging plant diseases worldwide. P. infestans produces AVR3a, an essential modular virulence effector with an N-terminal RXLR domain that is required for host-cell entry. In host cells, AVR3a stabilizes and inhibits the function of the E3 ubiquitin ligase(More)
Reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) play a pivotal role in the hypersensitive response (HR) in disease resistance. NADPH oxidase is a major source of ROI; however, the mechanisms of its regulation are unclear. Rice spl mutants spontaneously form lesions which resemble those occurring during the HR, suggesting that the mutations affect regulation of the HR.(More)
Pathogen attack sequentially confers pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) after sensing of pathogen patterns and effectors by plant immune receptors, respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play pivotal roles in PTI and ETI as signaling molecules. Nicotiana benthamiana RBOHB, an NADPH oxidase, is responsible for both(More)