Takashi Tonozuka

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The transcriptional coactivator beta-catenin mediates Wnt growth factor signaling. In the absence of a Wnt signal, casein kinase 1 (CK1) and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) phosphorylate cytosolic beta-catenin, thereby flagging it for recognition and destruction by the ubiquitin/proteosome machinery. Phosphorylation occurs in a multiprotein(More)
Shimizu et al. and ourselves have reported some enzymatic properties of an alpha-amylase from Thermoactinomyces vulgaris R-47 that hydrolyzed pullulan to produce panose [M. Shimizu et al., Agric. Biol. Chem., 42, 1681-1688 (1978); Y. Sakano et al., Agric. Biol. Chem., 46, 1121-1129 (1982)]. In this study, we cloned a gene for an alpha-amylase, which was(More)
The crystal structure of Thermoactinomyces vulgaris R-47 alpha-Amylase II (TVAII) has been determined by multiple isomorphous replacement at 2.6 A resolution. TVAII was crystallized in an orthorhombic system with the space group P212121 and the cell dimensions a=118.5 A, b=119.5 A, c=114.5 A. There are two molecules in an asymmetric unit, related by the(More)
Three DNA fragments of 7919 base pairs containing genes for beta-cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase, EC 2.4.1.19), an iron III dicitrate transport protein-like protein and a partial coding sequence for putative ferrichrome ABC transporter from Bacillus circulans A11 were cloned and sequenced (GenBank Accession AF302787). The DNA sequence contained a(More)
Thermoactinomyces vulgaris R-47 alpha-amylase 1 (TVAI) has unique hydrolyzing activities for pullulan with sequence repeats of alpha-(1,4), alpha-(1,4), and alpha-(1,6) glycosidic linkages, as well as for starch. TVAI mainly hydrolyzes alpha-(1,4) glycosidic linkages to produce a panose, but it also hydrolyzes alpha-(1,6) glycosidic linkages with a lesser(More)
A region downstream of the gene for pullulan-hydrolyzing α-amylase, TVA II, of Thermoactinomyces vulgaris R-47 was sequenced, and an open reading frame encoding an enzyme homologous to glucoamylase was found. The nucleotide sequence of this enzyme, designated TGA, consists of 1,953 base pairs corresponding to a protein of 651 amino acid residues. The TGA(More)
The X-ray crystal structures of Thermoactinomyces vulgaris R-47 alpha-amylase 1 (TVAI) and alpha-amylase 2 (TVAII) have been determined at 1.6 A and 2.3 A resolution, respectively. The structures of TVAI and TVAII have been refined, R-factor of 0.182 (R(free)=0.206) and 0.179 (0.224), respectively, with good chemical geometries. Both TVAI and TVAII have(More)
Thermoactinomyces vulgaris R-47 produces two alpha-amylases, TVA I, an extracellular enzyme, and TVA II, an intracellular enzyme. Both enzymes hydrolyze pullulan to produce panose, and also hydrolyze cyclodextrins. We cloned and sequenced the TVA I gene. The TVA I gene consisted of 1833 base pairs, and the deduced primary structure was composed of 611(More)
Arthrobacter sp. K-1 β-fructofuranosidase (ArFFase), a glycoside hydrolase family 68 enzyme, catalyzes the hydrolysis and transfructosylation of sucrose. ArFFase is useful for producing a sweetener, lactosucrose (4(G)-β-D-galactosylsucrose). The primary structure of ArFFase is homologous to those of levansucrases, although ArFFase catalyzes mostly(More)
A glucodextranase (iGDase) from Arthrobacter globiformis I42 hydrolyzes alpha-1,6-glucosidic linkages of dextran from the non-reducing end to produce beta-D-glucose via an inverting reaction mechanism and classified into the glycoside hydrolase family 15 (GH15). Here we cloned the iGDase gene and determined the crystal structures of iGDase of the unliganded(More)