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In September 2003, a new revision of the draft guideline (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] Guideline for the Testing of Chemicals, Proposal for a New Guideline 426, Developmental Neurotoxicity Study) was distributed. The draft guideline consists of 51 paragraphs and an appendix. The National Coordinators were requested to(More)
AIM To investigate the intercellular spaces between the most superficially located esophageal epithelial cells in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). METHODS Eighteen patients with erosive esophagitis, 10 patients with non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), and 18 normal asymptomatic volunteers were enrolled. Biopsy specimens were obtained(More)
Four early human embryos with open myeloschisis are reported. These are a thoracolumbar myeloschisis in Carnegie developmental stage 12, a cervical myeloschisis in stage 13, and two lumbosacral myeloschisis in stage 14. All of them are the smallest human embryos with this type of malformation ever reported. In these embryos, the neuroectodermal junction is(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS The clinical characteristics of esophageal eosinophilia (EE), which is essential for diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), have not been fully clarified in a Japanese population. The aim of this study was to analyze the reliability of symptoms and endoscopic findings for diagnosing EE in Japanese individuals. METHODS We(More)
A collaborative study was conducted by 30 laboratories that participated in the Behavioral Teratology Meeting in Japan. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats from four breeders were orally administrated 200 mg/kg of phenytoin each day from day 10 to day 14 of gestation. The offspring were tested for behavioral teratogenic effects at various ages. The effects were(More)
We previously demonstrated that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin treatment of Xenopus laevis during the early stages of life induces apoptosis in larval erythrocytes (Sakamoto et al., 1997). In the present study, an examination of these cells at the ultrastructural level was undertaken to elucidate the sequential morphological changes that occur during(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIM A substantial number of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease show symptomatic resistance to high-dose proton pump inhibitors. In those cases, prokinetics are possible candidates for treatment. The aim of the present study was to determine whether mosapride, a prokinetic agent, stimulates esophageal functions, and prevents acidic(More)
AIM To clarify the effects of anti-hypertensive drugs on esophageal contraction and determine their possible relationship with gastro-esophageal reflux disease. METHODS Thirteen healthy male volunteers were enrolled. Esophageal body peristaltic contractions and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure were measured using high resolution manometry. All(More)